Pakistan Faces External Security Threats From Afghanistan and India
Pakistan's insecurity and uncertainty derive primarily from the country's eastern and western borders with India and Afghanistan. The withdrawal of NATO forces from Afghanistan in December 2014 created a leadership vacuum and political instability, potentially worsening regional security, particularly in Pakistan. Pakistan also does not want Afghanistan to fall prey to foreign intervention, especially from India, as this would exacerbate Pakistan's sub-nationalism issue. Kashmir's strategic position has been a point of contention between the two countries. Kashmir is vital to both countries because it is the source of water for most of the major rivers that flow into Pakistan. In terms of security issues with India, they are critical because the two countries have fought three wars, resulting in massive human and financial losses as well as destruction of the countries' infrastructure.