Journal of Arts & Social Sciences https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass <div class="span12"> <p><strong>The Journal of Arts and Social sciences (JASS) is a biannual peer reviewed journal. It was launched in 2014 with an objective of promoting research studies in Pakistan. Published by Faculty of social sciences , Institute of education ,LCWU, a renowned women university of Pakistan. JASS is dedicated to promotion of the culture of research and dissemination of quality research studies among institutions, universities, researchers, and students and to cater the works of educational practitioners, scholars and theorists to provide latest and innovative research material for national and international researchers community. The journal aims to provide research findings and promote scholarship in History, Mass Communication, Social Work, Political Science/IR/Pakistan Study, Design and Visual Arts, Education. A multidisciplinary and innovative approach towards research in education is the special focus of the journal. The journal supports original and collaborative research from all parts of the world with the aim to develop a national and international community of researchers who believe in creating knowledge to improve quality and understanding of educational practice in diverse contexts.</strong></p> </div> Lahore College for Women University, Lahore en-US Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2311-293X DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC ABUSE SCALE (EAS); ESTABLISHING CONTENT VALIDITY OF EAS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/440 <p>Economic abuse involves behaviors that control a woman’s ability to acquire, use, and maintain economic resources, thus threatening her economic security and potential for self-sufficiency (Adams, Sullivan, Bybee, &amp; Greeson, 2008).&nbsp; Woman battering is a prevalent social problem committed against millions of women each year. Battering involves psychological abuse, physical abuse, and economic abuse as well. Economic abuse is the area which is less focused as compared to other forms of battering. The objective of present study was to develop an indigenous scale that would explore the phenomenon of economic abuse faced by married Pakistani women as currently there is no such indigenously developed measure of economic abuse available in Pakistan. Present study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a pool of items was generated. In phase two, Content Validity for EAS was established. The Scale CVI was 0.93. All 41 items were retained and were transformed into a 5-point rating scale. The psychometric properties of scale will be established using factorial validity.</p> Tabinda Jalil Amina Muazzam Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 78 86 10.46662/jass.v11i1.440 DESIGNING FUNCTIONAL AND AESTHETIC HOME TEXTILES FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL IN THE INDOOR BUILT ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN PUNJAB https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/453 <p>Recently, there has been a lot of innovation in the design and craft of decorative interior textiles. With the advent of advanced technologies and sustainability concerns all over the world, there has been phenomenal progress in the usage of functional applications in the field of interior textile design. These functional applications offer multiple solutions to impart in interior textiles that not only provide an aesthetic appeal in the indoor environment but also furnish the need for health and vector protection. Considering the present environmental conditions and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in the indoor environment in Pakistan, this review study was conducted to assess the user acceptance, and feasibility of manufacturing such products in the mainstream of Punjab textile industry. By employing the design thinking methodology, the study sorted out the technologically feasible and economically viable. Desirability, feasibility and viability. The home textile product that can function as a mosquito repellent in the indoor space after applying a vector protective finish can offer significant benefits to the users. The products may also cater to multiple functions along with their aesthetic appeal. The research presents the needs analysis and recommendations for utilizing functional applications in home textile products.</p> Amna Khalid Mumtaz Hasan Malik Sadia Farooq Shahzad Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 65 77 10.46662/jass.v11i1.453 MEDICAL PLURALISM IN BRITISH PUNJAB: NECESSITY OF COEXISTENCE, CONVERGENCE IN DIVERSE SOCIO-CULTURAL FABRIC https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/451 <p>This research paper explores the coexistence and convergence of plural healthcare practices in British Punjab with a prime focus on the need for a diverse social order to accommodate multiple healthcare setups. The interdisciplinary conceptual framework of this research rests on the debate around the dynamics of medical pluralism and its implications for healthcare delivery, while combining medical anthropology, and historical sociology. The objective is to explore how different medical systems, both indigenous and contemporary, influence and interact with each other, hence serving as the driving forces towards their coexistence and sometimes convergence of these systems. The findings reveal a dynamic landscape of medical pluralism in the then British Punjab, with traditional Ayurvedic, Unani, and homoeopathic practices showcasing interactions between traditional and Western medical practices. Results support the fact that recognizing and integrating multiple medical traditions and practices is crucial for ensuring accessible and effective healthcare services for the population.</p> Shabana Yasin Sumaira Noreen Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 56 64 10.46662/jass.v11i1.451 TRACING THE ETHEREAL: EXPLORING AESTHETIC HERITAGE AND CULTURAL IDENTITY IN HISTORIC GARDENS - A CASE STUDY OF SHALIMAR GARDEN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/444 <p>Mughal gardens are a prominent figure in the history of landscape architecture, serving as a symbol of artistic talent and horticultural genius. The Mughal gardens thrived throughout the Mughal Empire's rule in South Asia, and this dissertation investigates the profound philosophy that underpinned its design planting methods. The study explores the sociocultural factors that influenced Mughal gardening practices within the historical framework of that period. This study makes use of both primary and secondary sources to illuminate the main components of Mughal Garden design, including the widespread use of geometric patterns, water features, and the blending of architecture and landscape. A strong link between the gardens and the Mughal worldview is shown when the research additionally looks at the spiritual and metaphorical meanings connected to the fauna and plants selected for these gardens. Additionally, the study focuses on the cultivation practices used by Mughal horticulturists, showcasing their creative approaches to attaining a harmonic fusion of form and function. Mughal gardens are renowned for their overall visual effect, mostly due to the careful selection and placement of their flora. This dissertation tries to uncover the underlying plantation philosophy of Mughal gardens through a thorough investigation of historical records and garden ruins, highlighting the complex interactions between art, culture, and environment throughout this era. Modern landscape designers and hobbyists may take inspiration from the Mughal approach to horticulture and apply its timeless wisdom to contemporary gardening techniques by comprehending the fundamental ideas that guided the building of these gardens.</p> Ahsan Khalil Nijah Akram Muti ul haq Dr. Ayesha Mehmood Malik Sheikh Husnain Asif Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 37 47 10.46662/jass.v11i1.444 THE DETERIORATING MENTAL STATES OF WOMEN LIVING IN OLD AGE HOMES: A NARRATIVE INQUIRY https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/452 <p><span data-contrast="none">Old home living has become prevalent in Pakistan, but it differs significantly from living at home. This narrative inquiry uses in-depth interviews to explore the psychological impact on women residing in old age homes. Using an interpretivist paradigm, five women aged 60-75 from two Lahore old age homes were interviewed. The recurrent themes were "Health-related concerns," "Adverse life events," "Challenges," and "Coping mechanisms." The women, facing financial insecurity and emotional instability, had chosen to live in these homes. Many experienced troubled marriages, neglect from children, and family rejection, leading to depression, anxiety, and medical issues like high blood pressure and diabetes. Their coping mechanisms varied, with some leading to negative outcomes like denial and self-blaming. Isolation and abandonment resulted in hopelessness, bitterness, and negativity. This research highlights the need for mental health awareness and support for female residents in Pakistani old age homes.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:2,&quot;335551620&quot;:2,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559737&quot;:51,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:3,&quot;335551620&quot;:3,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559737&quot;:51,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shanzey Khan Zara Haroon Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 29 36 10.46662/jass.v11i1.452 EXPLORING COGNITIVE ABILITIES: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY INTO THE EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS RAISING CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/432 <p>The aim of this study is to explore the experiences and perceptions of parents regarding the development of cognitive abilities in their children with intellectual disability (ID) with a focus on understanding parental perspectives, challenges, and strategies employed in fostering cognitive growth in their children with ID. Understanding how parents perceive the abilities of their children with (ID) in Pakistan is crucial for developing effective diagnostic tool, educational programs and support services tailored to their needs. Given the lifelong limitations associated with ID, gaining insight into parental perspectives can serve as a gateway to implementing targeted interventions that aim to enhance cognitive development and overall well-being in this population. The study employed a qualitative research paradigm, with a purposive sample of 15 participants selected. Data collection involved conducting focus group discussions, and analysis was conducted using Reflexive Thematic Analysis (RTA). The findings highlighted two primary themes: Impaired Cognitive Abilities, specifically focusing on reasoning, problem-solving, and the consequences of these impairments. Mothers expressed concerns about their children with ID demonstrating limited planning, problem-solving, and reasoning abilities in daily life, which significantly affects their integration into society. Consequently, there is a strong emphasis on the necessity to develop an indigenous tool for diagnosing and measuring progress, along with a related curriculum that prioritizes these core skills.</p> Amna Bashir Ayesha Sitwat Nazia Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 23 28 10.46662/jass.v11i1.432 AN ECLECTIC STUDY ON STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION SUBJECTED TO LGBTQIA INDIVIDUALS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/423 <p><em>Despite legal advancements and commitments made in South Africa, homophobia remains prevalent. In this article, various sources of literature – particularly journals – have been reviewed and it has been found that LGBTQIA individuals face significant violations of their rights. They also experience physical and mental health issues, are stigmatised and discriminated against, and are excluded from cultural practices such as traditional male circumcision. It has been established that social work can play a vital role in ensuring that LGBTQIA individuals have access to their rights, educating communities, and advocating for strict penalties against those who engage in homophobia.</em></p> Luvo Kasa Copyright (c) 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 1 7 10.46662/jass.v11i1.423 OBSTACLES FACED BY PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING STEM EDUCATION: A CAUSE FOR CONCERN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/441 <p>Societies are empowering individuals with the skills and knowledge needed to thrive in the 21st century and contribute to a more sustainable, equitable, and prosperous future. The need for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics; STEM education is a multifaceted concept that plays an important role in preparing students in a complex and technology-driven world. Despite numerous benefits, certain obstacles exist that impede its effective implementation and widespread adaptation. The current qualitative research was structured to explore the obstacles faced by teachers in implementing STEM education in Kasur, Punjab-Pakistan. The authors conducted an interview protocol from randomly selected 20 teachers working in public sector schools. The results of the thematic analysis confirm that the struggle to implement STEM education schools’ councils’ poor involvement, low availability of computers and internet, lack of teachers’ training, poor application of innovative teaching methods, deficiency of science teachers, non-availability of STEM curriculum, administration constraints, availability of funds and laboratories were the main hurdles faced by teachers in implementing STEM education. It is recommended based on the findings that the School Education Department; SED hires science teachers, establishes laboratories, conducts teachers’ training, and invests a handsome amount to fulfill the deficiency of STEM hurdles, a cause for concern.</p> Sidra Yoonus Bhatti Dr. Mehboob Ul Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 8 15 10.46662/jass.v11i1.441 ATTITUDE OF FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TOWARDS THE PROCESS OF MATE SELECTION https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/445 <p><em>Relationships are the primary bond that holds people together and one of the important relationships that people have throughout their life is their marriage. </em><em>In Pakistan, choosing a mate for a female is a dynamic process that is influenced by a wide variety of circumstances, such as parental participation, the social and educational level of the spouse, among many others. The objective of current study was to know the attitude of female students of Punjab University towards the process of selecting their marriage partners. It was a quantitative study and data was collected from 268 female students of final year selected through simple random sampling. Data was collected with the help of questionnaire as tool of data collection, whereas data was analyzed statistically by applying chi square test and it was found that educational and financial status were most important variables considered by females while choosing the spouse among other factors including maturity of spouse and qualities of character. It is concluded on the basis of study findings that in a patriarchal society like Pakistan females have very little autonomy in decision making and it is recommended that awareness should be created among people to consider opinions of girls while choosing their mate so that they could be involved in the most important decision of their family life.</em></p> Nazia Salah ud Din Farukh Waseem Mirza Asif Nazar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 16 22 10.46662/jass.v11i1.445 ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF IDENTIFIED HISTORIC BAZAR OF SULTANATE PERIOD TOWARD TOURISM AND ECONOMIC UPLIFTING IN THE REGION OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/447 <p>Internationally, historic bazars are being regenerated to maintain and sustain the ambience of heritage core of the city. In Pakistan, this concept is also being followed in historic cities like Lahore, which have meaningful results by saving endangered heritage of specific time period as well creating economic, recreational and tourism activities having direct impact on uplifting of the community. There is need to apply this concept of regeneration in the other historic cities of Pakistan especially the remote areas like Southern Punjab where the heritage is being detoriating due to lack of maintenance and encroachment and need to protect on priority basis. Southern Punjab, Pakistan is a cradle of many civilizations and full of historic monuments with a most important era of Sultanate Period in which numbers of shrines were built spiritually in the memory of Sufi saints who played a vital role in spread of Islam in the region. Regular visits by their followers, especially during URS, led to the establishment of commercial and recreational activities in the form of bazars and mela grounds around these shrines. However, as city centers evolved over time, these bazars have deteriorated, necessitating regeneration for the revival of the historic core's ambiance This research focuses on the regeneration of historic bazars during the Sultanate Period in one of the historic settlements of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The methodology involves a comprehensive survey and interviews with experts, contributing valuable insights to the existing body of knowledge. Emphasizing compliance with SDG-11.4, which underscores the importance of ensuring the safety of indigenous heritage, the study aims to provide practical recommendations for the sustainable regeneration of these historic bazars, safeguarding Southern Punjab's rich cultural legacy.</p> Ayaz Mahmood Dr. Saima Gulzar Dr. Ayesha Mehmood Malik Muhammad Yusuf Muhammad Yusuf Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 48 55 10.46662/jass.v11i1.447 PATTERN OF ALLIANCES IN SOUTH CHINA SEA: AN ANALYSIS OF US REBALANCE POLICY https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/455 <p><em>The prominence of America’s ‘Pacific turn’ has not been reduced despite conflicts have conflagrated in the elsewhere regions. The US rebalance towards Asia policy has been in the limelight since its proclamation under Obama administration. This policy has been based upon forging alliances, especially with countries of Asia Pacific. Though successive US administration brought few changes in policy, yet, none have downgraded the notion of China as challenging US preponderance. The realists argue that a state either balances with power or against threat, albeit bandwagon on occasions. The South China Sea dispute exist as territorial conflict between China and the littorals states, presents an ideal situation for the later states to form an alliance with USA. However, these littoral states have instead opted hedging behavior towards greater powers. This article measures this behavior deducing the fact that complex interdependence among states and associated threats effect the traditional alliance patterns. </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syed Imran Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 87 94 10.46662/jass.v11i1.455 FEASIBILITY OF EDUCATIONAL METAVERSE FOR IMMERSIVE TRANSFORMATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/456 <p>The rapid advancement of immersive technologies has catalyzed transformative shifts across various sectors, particularly in education, where the potential for immersive learning environments holds considerable promise. However, empirical studies focusing on the implementation of immersive technologies within developing countries like Pakistan remain limited, presenting a critical gap in the literature. This study investigates the integration of the educational metaverse into teacher education in Pakistan, emphasizing infrastructural readiness, stakeholder roles, and ethical considerations. Despite the transformative potential of immersive technologies in enhancing pedagogical processes, significant challenges persist related to technological infrastructure, stakeholder engagement, and policy frameworks. Through qualitative analysis of interviews with key educational stakeholders, the research identifies critical barriers and opportunities within the Pakistani context. The findings of this study advocate a strategic, phased method to financing and establishing a robust support systems vital for the effective adoption of educational metaverse in teacher education. This study provides a practical and theoretical understanding of implementation of immersive technologies, hence presenting a framework for universities and policymakers of teacher education focusing to harness immersive innovations effectively.</p> Aysha Khalil Nabi Bux Jumani Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 11 1 95 106 10.46662/jass.v11i1.456 DECLINE OF PPP IN THE PUNJAB DURING ELECTION 2013 AND 2018, THE ROOT CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/406 <p>This research paper examines the decline of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) in the province of Punjab during the general elections of 2013 and 2018. The paper aims to identify the root causes behind the declining popularity of the PPP in Punjab and analyze the consequences of this decline on the party's political standing. The research utilizes a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data to provide a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. Primary and secondary data sources, including interviews, surveys, and archival records, are used to gather relevant information. The findings shed light on the factors contributing to the PPP's decline, such as internal party dynamics, electoral strategies, socio-political environment, and voter perceptions. Furthermore, the paper discusses the consequences of the decline for the PPP, its role in Punjab's political landscape, and potential implications for the party's future. The study concludes by offering recommendations for the PPP to address the identified root causes and regain electoral support in Punjab.</p> Mahmood Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 137 142 10.46662/jass.v10i2.406 SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS ON TEACHER MOTIVATION, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT, AND SELF-EFFICACY https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/404 <p>This research shows how teacher training programs (TTPs) for secondary school teachers can influence the motivation, professional development and self-efficacy of the educators. There were three primary goals of this study; the first objective of this research was to examine the impact of TTPs on the motivation levels of teachers, the second purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of TTPs on the professional development of educators and the final objective of the study was to examine the effects of TTPs on teachers' self-efficacy. For this study, a survey was used as a primary method of collecting information. 340 teachers in private and public schools across Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed using a self-made questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire were examined statistically. Teachers are motivated to attend these workshops because they know it will help them develop professionally and personally. The study found that TTPs were highly beneficial in motivating teachers, helping them grow professionally and improving their self-efficacy. Therefore, this study argues that TTPs hold significant importance in facilitating the growth and development of secondary school teachers.</p> Azra Saeed Aneesa Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 126 136 10.46662/jass.v10i2.404 IMAGING SPIRITUALITY: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF SURFACE DECORATION IN MARYAM ZAMANI MOSQUE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/399 <p>The study while examining the surface decoration/ornamentation in Maryam Zamani Mosque looks at the historical as well as cultural significance of mosque interiors in Islamic world. In doing so it is fully immersed in socio-political underpinnings that define Mughal and/or Islamic aesthetic thrusts in Pre-Modern India. It also addresses some well-established figments about the status of representational iconography in Islamic Art and compares the concept of aniconism in various indigenous traditions. ‘Non-figural’ as a scheme of ornamentation mediate the divine presence for the believers but it also effectively stimulates the senses towards the unconfined realities spiritually elevating the viewer. In its broader scope, it is a study of change of decorative features of religious buildings in Medieval India- from figurative to abstract, from earthly to spiritual or from ordinary to ideal. In addition to the conventional historiographic methods of research, ethnographic approach is employed to achieve the paradigm of socially-engaged art history for the global audience.</p> Sadia Pasha Kamran Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 117 125 10.46662/jass.v10i2.399 EXAMINING THE PREVALENCE OF BULLYING IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THE ROLE OF SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK IN ADDRESSING THE ISSUE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/398 <p>Bullying in schools can have detrimental effects on students' physical and psychological well-being, often resulting in long-lasting emotional scars. Addressing this issue is crucial in ensuring that school education remains a positive and nurturing environment for all students. Objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of bullying in public schools, and to assess the prospects of school social work to solve the problem of bullying. The methodology of the study was based on convergent parallel design of mixed method approach. 47 male and 53 female students of grades 6 and 10 of public schools of Tehsil City, district Lahore were selected for quantitative research by using proportional stratified random sampling technique. Quantitative data was collected from the students and qualitative responses were gathered from the parents and teachers. Criteria for inclusion was poor grades and poor attendance of the students. Among a sample of 100 students, 36% indicated prevalence of bullying as a lot, while 43% reported that such behavior occurs sometimes. Of the surveyed students, 37% expressed fear of being bullying as a lot, while 35% disclosed that they experienced such fear sometimes. Binary logistic regression analysis indicates that students who face bullying in school has 1.31 times more chances to dropout from school as compared to those who do not face bullying. This study proposes that education policy needs to acknowledge challenges faced by children and introduce school social work to help address these challenges.</p> Munazza Sunbal Tahira Jabeen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 107 116 10.46662/jass.v10i2.398 IDENTIFICATION OF CULTURE SPECIFIC VALUES AND POSITIVE EMOTIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/396 <p>This research is an indigenous inquiry for identification of culture-specific values and positive emotions among school children. Cultural values and positive emotions are essential for promoting psychological well-being. They are significant for developing effective interventions to prevent developmental issues and promotion of positive institutional environment. In this qualitative survey responses of 150 school children (boys=80, girls=70) of aged 9-12 years (M=10.86, SD=0.79) and 50 primary school teachers (men=12, women=38) were recorded for the identification of culture specific values and positive emotions. The participants were recruited using purposive sampling from two public schools of Lahore. Questionnaire on Culture Specific Values and Positive Emotions (students’ and teachers’ version) with open-ended questions were used for data collection. The content analysis of data yielded significant positive self-traits including self-awareness, resilience, hard work, joyfulness and sharing of thoughts and physical objects. Gratitude, altruism and respect were identified as prominent moral values. Building relationships, social intelligence and self-regulation came out as major themes. The study implies for the policy makers that understanding culture-specific values and positive emotions is a vital step towards shaping a peaceful and tolerant society as well as for promoting global harmony and intercultural dialogue.&nbsp;</p> Mamoona Riaz Sarah Shahed Shehla A. Yasin Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 98 106 10.46662/jass.v10i2.396 IMPACT OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATION TOOL (COT) ON PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/392 <p>The main aim of the study was to identify the Effect of Classroom Observation Tool (COT) on Teachers Performance. The main objectives of the study were to find the difference in Classroom Observation Tool (COT) on teachers’ performance regarding demographic variable (gender, qualification, experience). Data was collected through survey method and study was quantitative in nature. The population of the study were consisted all public elementary Schools in district Nankana Sahib. From total population of District Nankana Sahib Tehsil Sangla Hill and further Male Elementary Education Wing was selected randomly. The sample was selected using a random sampling procedure. As a sample for the study, teachers from District Nankana Sahib were chosen. 300 instructors were chosen as the study's sample. Data were gathered using a questionnaire that was self-developed. The questionnaire had two sections. Demographic factors (gender, education, and experience) made up the first half of the study, while classroom observations and instructor performances made up the second. The SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) programme was used to analyse the data.&nbsp; The independent samples t-test was employed in inferential statistics to determine the significance of the difference between demographic variables (gender). To examine the differences between demographic factors (experience and qualification), one-way ANOVA was used.</p> Sumaira Munawar Khadija Sittar Gulshan Fatima Alvi Iqbal Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 92 97 10.46662/jass.v10i2.392 A COMPARISON OF BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY BETWEEN YESTERYEARS’ AND CONTEMPORARY INITIATES: THE CASE OF 2022 CALA AND MDANTSANE STUDY https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/375 <p>This article compared the behaviour of yesteryear’s initiates and the contemporary ones in Cala and Mdantsane. This study aimed to explore the policy differences informing TMC in yesteryears and those in the contemporary epoch; to identify the similarities and differences between the behaviour of the two sets of initiates; and to establish the environmental factors motivating the behaviour of initiates. The exploratory and descriptive designs were used. One‑on‑one interviews with the guidance of an interview guide to facilitate interviews. The findings revealed that the yesteryears’ initiates behaved meticulously compared to those of contemporary epoch; embracement of chastity by the yesteryears’ initiates; contemporary initiates displayed wicked behaviours post initiation; the contemporary initiates’ behaviours influenced by illusionary interpretation of rights and tenets of development; Contemporary initiates entrenching culture of abusing substances. Government should ensure that traditional male circumcision achieves its objective. Training for traditional attendants; and hosting cultural events for cultural resuscitation.</p> Simon Murote Kang’ethe Aphiwe Mpateni Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 82 91 10.46662/jass.v10i2.375 TRUST GLUES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHICAL LEADERSHIP OF HEADS AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS’ MORAL COMPETENCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/315 <p style="margin: 0in; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Ethical leadership is a pragmatic concept that needs to be explored extensively in today's workplace. Ethical leaders show moral behavior and try to build an ethical and trusted environment in the organizations. This study was planned to determine the relationship between the ethical leadership of heads as perceived by the teachers in universities of the Punjab, trust, and moral competency of the teachers. Specifically, trust as a mediator was examined to know its effect on the association of perceived ethical leadership of heads with employees’ moral competence. The sample of this study was five public sector universities of Punjab. Data were collected from 230 teachers through a questionnaire from different departments of social sciences and sciences faculties. Pearson correlation was applied to find out the relationship among variables, and Process MACRO was used to measure the mediating effect of trust in the relationship between the variables. Results revealed that leaders' ethical behavior was positively related to teachers' trust but not to their moral competence. Ethical leadership of heads was significantly associated with employees' moral competence when mediated by their trust in heads. It was suggested that leaders should articulate a clear vision, explain how to reach it and express trust and confidence in their followers, emphasizing values, especially fairness and justice, to make themselves trustworthy.</span></p> Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 75 81 10.46662/jass.v10i2.315 UNFOLDING EXISTING SCHOOL REALITIES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REFORMS INITIATIVE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/385 <p>Reform initiatives have always been critical to reforming school systems, maximizing educational output, and improving academic quality. By analyzing the perspectives and experiences of school stakeholders, this qualitative study aimed to shed light on the discrepancies between school reform initiatives, existing realities, and the current situation. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, and phenomenological analysis and reflection were used to interpret the data. The transcripts were read systematically and repeatedly during the course of analysis. For classifying and developing them into themes, the data were reduced into codes, categories, or themes, and thus, the data were made meaningful and interpreted accordingly. The study results are presented in terms of themes, i.e., defining school reform initiatives, continuity of reform initiatives, lack of political vision, the miserable economy of the country, contradictions between reforms and existing realities, and barriers to the implementation process. The research has implications for school improvement, policy-making and implementation.</p> Asia Shaheen Nadia Gilani Syed Abdul Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 67 74 10.46662/jass.v10i2.385 LOAN CHARACTERISTICS & LOAN CREDIT TERMS: DOES IT MATTER IN A MICROFINANCE CONTRACT? https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/379 <p>This study examined the relationship between loan characteristics and loan credit conditions on loan repayment issues in order to assist Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in Pakistan in improving their loan payback performance. The study also examines the link between loan credit terms and problems with loan repayment as well as the mediating function of client-business performance in the relationship between loan characteristics and loan repayment concerns. A measurement model and a structural model were both used in this investigation, which used a two-stage structural equation modelling methodology. The measurement model, also known as the outer model, was employed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the data collection technology. PLS-SEM bootstrapping was performed to test the hypothesis using the structural model (inner model). The results are consistent with the assumption that loan terms and conditions have a positive impact on microenterprise loan repayment concerns. The findings of this study also lend credence to the idea that client-business performance functions as a mediator in the relationships between loan characteristics and problems with loan repayment as well as between loan credit terms and problems with loan repayment. There hasn't been much research done in Pakistan to date on how loan characteristics and loan credit terms directly affect the challenges microenterprises face in repaying loans. The business performance of microenterprises is also investigated in relation to loan features, loan credit terms, and loan repayment issues.</p> Muhammad Akram Zahid Iqbal Muhammad Mudasir Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 57 66 10.46662/jass.v10i2.379 COMMODIFICATION OF ASIAN FEMININITIES IN CHA'S IF I HAD YOUR FACE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/377 <p>This research paper probes the postfeminist commodifying schemas of beauty politics that shape the identities of women in Asian fiction. It focuses on the transformative journey of Kyuri, an enchantingly beautiful Salon girl, as depicted in Frances Cha's novel, <em>If I Had Your Face. </em>Set against the backdrop of the vibrant metropolis of Seoul, South Korea, Kyuri's narrative represents the profound yearning of Asian women deeply immersed in the allure and sophistication of glamour and beauty. Employing Naomi Wolf’s Beauty Myth, this article examines the multifaceted experiences of the Asian women portrayed in the novel. Schemas of beauty industry lead them to commodified futures. In the highly competitive realm of beauty industry, the quest for physical perfection compels Asian women to undergo transformative facial procedures, seeking unrelenting pursuit of an idealized standard of beauty, perpetuated by the glamorous world and media. Repeated surgical interventions for artificial beauty standards ensnare them in a disquieting dystopian future. Xenofeminism celebrates the techno-material and antinatural bodies. In this paradigm, the characters in <em>If I Had Your Face</em> grapple with the unsettling and dehumanizing consequences of their pursuit of beauty: a dystopic future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Xenofemism, Techno-material, Antinatural, Dystopia, Beauty Myth</p> Sahar Javaid Ghulam Murtaza Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 49 56 10.46662/jass.v10i2.377 EVALUATING THE MODERATING EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL ENGAGEMENT IN TRANSITION TO SCHOOL AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/380 <p>The objective of the current study is to determine how parental involvement in the transition to school affects students’ academic achievement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The goal was to investigate the diminishing character of socioeconomic position in the link between academic success and the start of school. For this study, a survey research approach was chosen. The 140 kindergarteners and their 140 parents made up the study's sample utilizing a random sampling procedure. Both the MCQ-based exam and the parental involvement questionnaires were employed, and their reliability was later validated. Data analysis was done after the data-gathering process. Parents with higher SES levels significantly influence their children achievement in school as compared to the parents with low SES. Following that, it was suggested that the government take the lead in offering stipends to students with low financial support for their studies. This action may provide kids with the tools they need for a smooth transition. The availability of resources and pupils' academic success are related. This action could boost students' performance in school.</p> Hafeez Ud Din Muhammad Idris Saqib Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 39 48 10.46662/jass.v10i2.380 INTEGRATING INTUITIVE AND SYSTEMATIC APPROACH IN THE STUDIO https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/378 <p>This paper aims to explain the experiment conducted in 4th semester architectural studio incorporating integrated approach to intuitive and systematic studio teaching. After a brief overview of the evolution of architectural teaching, the research delves into the intuitive and systematic studio teaching integration approach as employed in second year studio. This research argues that owing to different learning styles and subjective nature of the design problems in architecture, architectural studios should embed flexibility in both content design and teaching methodologies of a studio. A detailed discussion with images of the works produced and processes adopted, on the content design and methodologies vis- a- vis the second-year studio establishes that an integration of intuitive and systematic approach does augment learning and achieving the set studio objectives.</p> Meezan Ali Mir Sannah Ejaz Uzma Kabir Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 31 38 10.46662/jass.v10i2.378 STUDY OF TRANSFORMATION OF JHAROKHA WINDOW FORM IN LAHORE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/313 <p>The traditional architecture of any area embodies its true character, deeply rooted in the history, geography, and culture of that region. It does not only satisfy the functional requirements but also stems from local construction techniques and materials available. Traditional architecture faces the problem of its coexistence with modern technological development everywhere. The built heritage which stands in Lahore over centuries is encroached by modern and efficient techniques. The present paper specifically focuses on the development of Jharokha windows (Bay windows) in Lahore. The Jharokha window that was used in the Indian sub-continent during and after the Mughal period was the solution to the climatic conditions of the region. This research will investigate the old Jharokha window form and how with technology and advancement it starts losing its original form. The change in Jharokha form will be studied by the existing examples from different time periods available in the city of Lahore.</p> Zain Zulfiqar Madeeha Altaf Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 22 30 10.46662/jass.v10i2.313 TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING SCHOOL CLIMATES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONALLY QUALIFIED AND NON-QUALIFIED TEACHERS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/355 <p>This research study gives a comparative analysis of professionally qualified and non-qualified teachers (PNQTs) regarding their professional skills and their relevant school climates. The quantitative, causal-comparative design was suitable to determine professional qualification as a cause of varying school climates. The data was collected from 112 teachers (56 PQT and 56 PNQT) and their 224 students from public schools of Punjab province. One observation sheet to measure teachers’ professional skills and one questionnaire on the Likert scale were developed to measure school climates. The observation sheet was derived from National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPSTs) in Pakistan and school climate was based on four domains given by Wang and Degol (2016). These instruments were validated by calculating CVI and reliability was ensured to greater than 0.7 Cronbach Alpha. Descriptive (Mean, SD) and inferential statistics (t-test and correlation) were employed for data analysis. The results revealed PQTs exhibit better skills under seven delimited standards of NPSTs including subject matter knowledge, human growth and development, Islamic and ethical practice, instructional planning, assessment, learning environment, and collaboration in schools than PNQTs. However, diversity has been found in the skills and school climates of PNQTs indicating a varying effect of professional qualification. There is enough empirical evidence that professional education may be a pre-requisite for teachers’ appointments in Punjab School Education Department.</p> Hamid Ali Nadeem Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 1 12 10.46662/jass.v10i2.355 CAREER BARRIERS, PERCEIVED PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL SUPPORT AND HOPELESSNESS LEVEL: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS OF LAHORE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/347 <p>The aim of this research study was to investigate the relationship between career barriers, perceived professional social support and hopelessness level among female teachers of both private and public sectors. The research was quantitative in nature. An adapted questionnaire comprising of 45 close- ended statements was administered to a sample of 100 schoolteachers, 50 from public school and 50 from private secondary female school teachers in which there were 4 private schools and 4 public schools of Lahore. The sampling strategy used was convenience sampling. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to examine the data. The study revealed no correlation between career barriers and feelings of hopelessness among private school teachers, although there was a strong relation between career barriers and professional social support among teachers. Among public school teachers, there was no significant relationship found between career barriers and both teacher professional social support and hopelessness levels. Furthermore, when comparing the three parameters between public and private school teachers, the findings revealed a significant difference in terms of career barriers between public and private school teachers. However, no significant difference was found in terms of teacher professional social support between private and public-school teachers. Additionally, there was statistically no significant difference between public and private school teachers in their hopelessness level. It is recommended that workshops, training sessions and seminars should be arranged to provide knowledge to both public and private school teachers about how to overcome career barriers.</p> Khadija Khan Qurratulain Rehan Tooba Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 11 1 13 21 10.46662/jass.v10i2.347 EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP ON CULTIVATING A POSITIVE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/409 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>This research conducts a rigorous examination of the pivotal role played by school leadership in shaping a positive school environment within the distinctive context of secondary education in Balochistan, Pakistan. The study encompasses 300 students, 100 teachers, and 60 head teachers from the Makran Division. The primary objective is to investigate leadership strategies and their influence on fostering a positive environment. Through an in-depth exploration of leadership approaches, decision-making processes, and community engagement initiatives, the study aims to comprehend how these strategies contribute to the overall school environment. Additionally, the study involves evaluating outcomes related to student well-being, teacher-student relationships, and academic engagement. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the research measures the effects of school leadership on creating an environment conducive to holistic student development. Strong connections are identified between student performance, teacher efficacy, and head teacher leadership. Positive correlations (r = 0.615, p &lt; 0.01) exist between students' and teachers' performance, a moderate correlation (r = 0.328, p &lt; 0.05) between students' performance and head teacher leadership, and a notable correlation (r = 0.336, p &lt; 0.01) between teacher performance and head teacher leadership. The study aims to provide insights into effective leadership practices in Balochistan's secondary education and offers recommendations for enhancing the educational experience and fostering positive school environments. The findings are intended to inform educational policymakers, school administrators, and practitioners, facilitating informed decision-making for the improvement of secondary education environments in Balochistan, particularly within the Makran Division, and potentially in similar contexts globally.</p> Najeeb Ullah Karim Nawaz Farzana Jabeen Khoso Abdullah Ghunio Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-12-16 2023-12-16 11 1 219 227 10.46662/jass.v10i1.409 ENGLISH EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA: THE STRATEGIC ADOPTION AND POSITIONING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SCHOOLS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/308 <p>This article analyses British ventures for English education in the Indian subcontinent which had signified the inevitable relevance of English language both for education policy and practice. Looking at the phenomena in pre-19<sup>th</sup> century context, English language was introduced in the subcontinent for the sake of training Indian interpreters who could also act as mediators between other Indians and the British officers of East India Company. During 19<sup>th</sup> century, after establishing their rule over the Indian subcontinent, English education was being used as a vehicle of colonial enlightenment. Those were times when English language was introduced as a taught subject side by side with vernacular subjects in schools. While early 20<sup>th</sup> century had witnessed demands for educational change from within and from without, English language had sustained its status as a compulsory taught subject in schools even as a part of the suggested revisions in education system of the subcontinent. Based on primary data evidence from the public record files of the then Ministry of Education and of Education Commissions, conferences, etc. comprising of British officers and educated Indian leaders, this article provides a significant insight into why and how the British official vision for strategising English language in the mainstream school education of the subcontinent was being carried out.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sumaira Noreen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 1 7 10.46662/jass.v10i1.308 ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL EDUCATION PROCESS IN PAKISTAN IN RELATION TO AUSTRALIA, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AND THE UNITED KINGDOM https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/296 <p>This paper provides an analysis of legal education in Pakistan with that of the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US), and Australia. The main objective of the study was focused on examining the similarities and variations in curriculum, teaching strategies, faculty credentials, assessment and evaluation, professional training certification, and continuing education. The study found that legal education in Pakistan places more emphasis on theoretical knowledge, with limited opportunities for practical training, while legal education in the UK, US, and Australia places a strong emphasis on practical training, critical thinking, and professional development. The paper emphasises the value of practical training and professional development in legal education therefore it is recommended that Pakistan's legal education system could benefit from incorporating these elements into its curriculum to prepare graduates in the field of social sciences for legal practices in Pakistan and internationally.</p> Dr. Muhammad Idris Dr. Abdus Samad Khan Maksal Minaz Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 8 16 10.46662/jass.v10i1.296 GENDER DIFFERENCES: PARANORMAL BELIEFS AND MALADAPTIVE EMOTIONAL SCHEMAS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/307 <p>This study aimed to assess and compare the level of paranormal beliefs and maladaptive emotional schemas between both genders, males and females suffering from Functional Neurological Symptom disorder (FNSD). One hundred thirty-four patients (67 males &amp; 67 females) between 14 years to 24 years having functional neurological symptoms disorder were approached through a purposive sampling strategy from the psychiatric wards of the government and private hospitals in Lahore. The questionnaires of RPBS (Tobacky, 2004) and LESS-II (Leahy, 2002) were applied to assess paranormal beliefs and maladaptive emotional schemas, respectively. The results of the Independent sample t-test show that female patients experience a significantly different paranormal witchcraft beliefs; t (132) = 18.15, p=.000, two-tailed, and superstitions beliefs; t (132) = 33.704, p=.000, two-tailed. The effect of Cohen (d =1.705) is higher and more in females than males. In addition, findings also show the statistically significant gender difference on emotional schemas of invalidation; t (132) = 2.25, p=.026, two-tailed, on a simplistic view of emotions; t (132) = 33.704, p=.000, two-tailed, on low expression; t (132) = 5.716, p=.000, two-tailed and on blame; t (132) = -2.372, p=.019, two-tailed. The effect size of Cohen (d =0.629) is medium, however, more in females than males. This study concluded that female FNSD patients need to be more focused on modifying their paranormal witchcraft and superstitious beliefs and maladaptive emotional schemas of invalidation, simplistic view of emotions, and blaming to control them than males. Therefore, males should be adjusted for the emotion of low expression, which could be done through emotional focus therapy.</p> Amber Roohee Munazza Sunbal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 17 27 10.46662/jass.v10i1.307 WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF FEMALE BANKING PERSONALS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/310 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and workplace incivility&nbsp;has been investigated and examined by academics for over twenty-five years, and it continues to be a subject that academics are interested in studying.&nbsp;This research analyzes the influence of incivility shown by coworkers and supervisors on OCB by examining the role that interpersonal deviance plays as a mediator, as well as the role that perceived organizational support plays as a moderator in this relationship. Participants in the research are female workers currently working in the banking industry in Pakistan. The research was conducted with participation from 360 female workers who were working in various places throughout Pakistan. Data from respondents was collected using the structured questioner that was provided. The data were examined using correlation and regression analysis, and AMOS was used to examine the mediating and moderating effects of the relationships. According to the findings, interpersonal deviance acts as a partial mediator between incivility shown by coworkers and supervisors and behavior that demonstrates organizational citizenship. In addition, the findings demonstrated that the perception of organizational support moderates the association between incivility shown by coworkers and supervisors and behavior that demonstrates organizational citizenship. In order to analyze the connection between the many observable characteristics, the present research exclusively focuses on the female banking personnel.</p> Bushra Mehmood Muhammad Ramzan Bushra Yasmeen Javeria Zafar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 28 33 10.46662/jass.v10i1.310 AN INSIGHT INTO THE POSTCOLONIAL FEMINISM USING ABDULLAH’S SHORT STORY “ASHES TO ASHES AND DUST TO DUST” https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/311 <p>Postcolonial feminism is a collection of numerous ideologies aimed at explaining, initiating and preserving social, economical, political and legal rights of women in post-colonial settings. Many literary figures have put down their minds on paper to elaborate the themes of postcolonial feminism; Shaila Abdullah is one of those writers who have painted the miseries of feminine bodies in postcolonial milieu. This study concentrates on one of the short stories of Shaila entitled “<em>ashes to ashes and dust to dust</em>”, to explore the notions of oppression, power, hegemony and patriarchy through gender lens. Under the light of postcolonial feminism, the paper examines the protagonist of the story, ‘<em>Dhool’</em> and investigates the relations and interactions between opposite genders to analyze impact of patriarchal society on the lives of feminine segments of society. The analysis depicts that the instances of patriarchy are universalized in the text, which dominate the physical and psychological state of the genders, specifically females. Through the demonstration of the courageous opposition of the character Dhool against patriarchy, the writer symbolizes the traces of feminism among postcolonial women. However, the overall journey of Dhool in the story validates the prominence of male power which makes her identity and physical presence devalued as well as makes her appearance not more than an object for men to fulfill their desires.</p> Maimoona Moin Maheen Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 34 41 10.46662/jass.v10i1.311 MARRIAGE PROPOSALS & SELF-PERCEIVED EXPERIENCES OF FEMALES FOR STANDARD OR IDEAL BEAUTY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/324 <p>Abstract</p> <p>In Pakistan, female have been facing numerous challenges during search of best marriage proposal. Over the globe ideal beauty standards have been implicated for female which might be negatively influence their mental and physical health. Findings of the current study analyzed the differences in perception, thoughts, exposure and feelings of individuals regarding their personal or physical appearance and society’s positive or negative influences over their perception while looking for marriage proposal. The present study identified the in-depth experience or perception of individual through interviews of 12 females who have been rejected in different marriage proposals and who have been perceived the social norms and cultural barriers that female have been facing all around them while searching for life partner. When females’ perception were analyzed through content analyses technique, 8 major themes identified followed by initial coding and sub-themes i.e. self-perception, societal pressure, self-care/ beauty charmer, rejection factors, media networking, psychological issues, gender Differences, and self V/S society. About 15 major themes emerged from the analysis of responses of the participants who had gone through with typical rejection process during marriage proposal were as following; self-perception, societal pressure, selection criteria, religious perspective, beauty standards, rejection factor, social comparison/ responsibilities, psychological issues, socialization, socio-economic comparison, social networking, self v/s society, marriage proposal, gender difference, and culture. The study came into limelight the religious aspects of beauty that is universal and standardized, that was created by the almighty Creator of each and everything which is beautiful and complete in its all aspects. Also, the issues that have been created for females due to socio-cultural expectation believes regarding ideal beauty standards which imparted psychological and physical consequences that were usually negative or detrimental for female health and well-being. The rejection has been basically announced on the basis of typical selection criteria formulated by specific class and followed within that social circle.</p> <p>Key words: marriage proposal, self-perception, societal pressure, selection criteria, religious perspective, beauty standards, rejection factor, gender difference</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Asma Seemi Malik Anam Rafaqat Maryam Zafar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 42 54 10.46662/jass.v10i1.324 STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE PRACTICES OF ANDRAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES: A CASE OF TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION SITUATED IN LAHORE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/325 <p><em>Andragogy as an arts and science of teaching adults, advocates that adults learn differently from child learners and both have different magnitude of learning experiences. Adult students are self-directed and need to know before learning something as compare to child students. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the students’ practices of andragogical principles in a public sector teacher education context. The quantitative survey research design was carried out to collect the data. Population were comprised all male and female students studying in year I and year II of B.Ed. (Hons) program from a public sector teacher education institution. Total 167 (46 male and 121 female) students were the respondents to the questionnaire. A close ended questionnaire was adapted and the reliability of the instrument was ensured by Cronbach alpha which was 0.96. The collected data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and independent sample t-test. Analysis of the results suggested that students did not aware with the Andragogical principles. There was a significance difference exist in the practices of male and female students. Male students perceived andragogical practices slightly higher than the female students. Whereas, no significant difference exist in the andragogical practices of year I and year II students from B.Ed. (hons.). It is recommended that teachers may provide awareness to the students about andragogical adult learning principles and also adapt andragogical approach for teaching adults. It is also recommended that teachers may provide andragogical orientations and learning environment, especially for those students who are newly joined teacher education institutions. </em></p> Umme Habiba Ahmad Sohail Lodhi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 55 63 10.46662/jass.v10i1.325 BEHAVIORS OF NON SUICIDAL SELF INJURY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENT https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/305 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Aim of study was to assess behaviors of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI) in University Students. Research design was correlational. Assessment measures used were: DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure—Adult, Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury (ABASI) and Inventory of Statement about Self Injury (ISAS). Sample comprised of hundred students of 19 to 24 years who were diagnosed with of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI). The results indicated that hitting one self, hair pulling and interference in wound healing were more commonly used methods of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI). Moreover, it was found that mostly students use more than one method of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI). Furthermore, the results revealed that indirect methods of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI) were taking over dose of some medicine, smoking, drug use and restricted food intake. . It could be concluded that students who engage in more than one method of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI) are at greater risk of suicide. Early identification and intervention can be helpful in prevention of Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI).</p> Nighat Yasmeen Dr . Aisha Sitwat Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 64 68 10.46662/jass.v10i1.305 RELATIONSHIP AMONG CLIMATE CHANGE AWARENESS AND ONLINE MEDIA, ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY BELIEFS AND BEHAVIOR https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/332 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Each year Pakistan suffers monetary set-back and loss of precious lives due to climate change and related catastrophes. Global Climate Risk Report (2021) declared Pakistan to be amongst the top 10 countries to be most affected by climate change and the very next year the country got hit by mega floods. Citizen’s awareness about issues faced by a nation help towards resolution of those issues. Right to a healthy environment and right to information regarding issues of society are considered fundamental. Awareness regarding climate change is the right of every Pakistani so they realize the magnitude of this problem. Green awareness has the potential to make an impression on citizens and help tackle issues related to climate change. Awareness can reach citizens through several ways, including online media which enjoys vast penetration in Pakistan. According to Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (2023) 54% of Pakistani population have broadband connections and 53% have mobile broadband connectivity which provides an opportunity to impart awareness. Green awareness through online media has positive impacts on environmental beliefs and behavior of citizens. Data coming from 1420 university students of Punjab revealed various associations tested with Pearson Chi-Square. Results indicated association between online media usage of citizens and green awareness. Additionally, awareness carried a positive association with pro-environment beliefs of respondents. Positive association was also found between green awareness and pro-environment behavior of respondents.</p> <p><em>Keywords: citizen participation, climate change, basic human rights, awareness through online media, pro-environment beliefs, environment-friendly behavior, pro-environment online engagement. </em></p> Sanaa Mirza Dr. Faiza Latif Shabana Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 69 78 10.46662/jass.v10i1.332 INFLUENCE OF INSTAGRAM USE ON BODY SURVEILLANCE AND FEAR OF MISSING OUT IN YOUNG PAKISTANI ADULTS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/292 <p>The increasing use of Instagram use leads to internalization of unrealistic standards of society that youth intend to be a part of is likely to lead to a number of psychological concerns. The current study investigates the relationship of Instagram usage with body surveillance and fear of missing out. The study also aimed to find gender difference in instagram usage, body surveillance and fear of missing out. Correlational study design was used. A sample of 200 males and females were included between the ages of 18-25 years recruited from different universities of Lahore. Instagram addiction scale, Body Surveillance Scale and Fear of missing out scale were used in the study. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient and Independent Sample t test were used to test the objectives of the study using SPSS-21. The finding showed a positive association among Instagram usage with body surveillance. Among study variables an essential gender difference was observed. Males scored higher on Instagram usage and fear of missing out whereas female scored higher in body surveillance. The findings suggest that body related concerns and disorders have high associated when it comes to social media therefore activities and awareness can be carried out at preliminary levels to reduce the negative impact on young minds.</p> Zara Haroon Youmna Batool Prof. Dr Masha Asad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 79 85 10.46662/jass.v10i1.292 WORKING UNDER PRESSURE: HOW ARE HEAD TEACHERS INHIBITED AND CHALLENGED WHILE PURSUING THE HEADSHIP IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS? https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/331 <p>This study explored what experiences head teachers had while pursuing secondary school headship when they were inhibited by various pressure groups inside and outside of the school. The study aimed at understanding, describing, and interpreting how do secondary school head teachers manage their headship role, and what are the storied experiences that they had while working as head teachers. The participants of the present study were head teachers (n=13) with a minimum of five years’ headship experience in public sector secondary schools within Sahiwal Division, Province of Punjab, Pakistan. By using of a narrative qualitative inquiry approach, data were collected from participants through semi-structured interviews who were selected purposively. Two main themes were identified after the data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. The key findings pointed out that the head teachers of Public Secondary Schools continuously faced obstacles from pressure groups during their routine work. These pressure groups comprise of both internal and external pressure groups. The results of the study affirm the need to address these issues to enable the head teachers to work freely to foster quality education in the schools.</p> Ghulam Mustafa Kanwal Syed Abdul Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 86 98 10.46662/jass.v10i1.331 ATTITUDE AND ACCEPTABILITY TOWARD VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/333 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current research was designed to analyze the attitudes and beliefs of people regarding sexual assault. The study was conducted through a mixed-method approach in two phases. The first phase consisted of 12 interviews, whereas the second phase focused on the survey method involving 100 participants. Male and female students from public and private institutions were purposively selected for both phases. All participants were from various socio-economic backgrounds between the ages of 20 to 65 years. The interviews were taped, typed, and coded. The data gathered through interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Colleen Ward's Scale (Attitudes Toward Rape Victims) was used in phase two to measure the attitude toward rape victims of both sexes. The quantitative data was analyzed using ANOVA. The current study sought to investigate the victims of sexual assault in Pakistani society regarding attitudes, acceptance, and rape myths about them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Myths about rape, Sexual assault, Rape victims, The Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale</p> Sidra Samar Dr. Uzma Ashiq Khan Aneeqa Razzaq Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 99 113 10.46662/jass.v10i1.333 TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACIOUS BELIEFS APROPOS GENDER EQUALITY PRIORITIZING TO THE UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 5 https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/297 <p>Teachers are the important figure in society. They are the nation builders, and information providers and disseminate knowledge among students focusing on their efficacious beliefs for gender equality; the United Nations global agenda, 2030. As the globe intends to strengthen harmony among states, prosperity, lifelong learning, and well-being focusing on the aspect of gender equality accordingly. To spread national and international messages within states, the teachers are the backbone who confidently cooperate and implement the stances accordingly. Likewise, the authors structured the current research to figure out the aspect of teachers’ self-efficacious beliefs playing a role in prioritizing the United Nations SDG 5 “<em>gender equality</em>”. The authors planned the current research on a sample of 674 primary school teachers working in public sector schools of District Lahore. After obtaining unfettered and unrestricted permissions from the authors, the administration of standardized instruments assists the researcher to collect the data from participants. Following piloting criteria and ensuring reliability and normality statistics, the authors applied parametric statistics to analyze the data for smooth results in SPSS. The results revealed that teachers’ self-efficacious beliefs have a 74.90% influence on enhancing gender equality and were important to spreading UN, SDG 5 “gender equality”. Primary school teachers have equally treated and disseminated knowledge among students. However, the authors have identified that in public sector educational institutions, the government is hardly focusing on SGD to implement the UN global agenda. The current research recommends that the government of Pakistan, train teachers, conduct workshops, and arrange the speeches of motivational speakers to spread the UN 17 goals with 169 integrated targets.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Mehboob Ul Hassan Prof. Dr. Abid Hussain Ch Muhammad Rizwan Naila Zaigham Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 114 123 10.46662/jass.v10i1.297 EXPLORING CHANGE AND ALIGNMENT; AN ACADEMIC AUDIT OF PRIMARY-LEVEL MATHEMATICS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF PUNJAB SINCE 2000 https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/334 <p>Primary-level Mathematics curriculum experienced five revisions since 2000 that could not break status qou in porrly performance of the students in basic algebraic operations on numbers. Alignment among curriculum, textbook, and assessment leads enhancing performance of the students. The instant study examines the change in the curriculum and determines the alignment among curricula, textbooks, and assessments proposed therein restricted to the basic algebraic operations on numbers since 2000.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This investigation explores cosmetic quantitative changes in the focused curricula but no qualitative change because the ultimate scope remained unaltered. However, curricula, textbooks, and assessments proposed therein are found strictly aligned by employing Surveys Enacted Modal devised by Porter. The cosmetic change transformed the curriculum into more structured form that facilitates the textbook developers, whereas; reduces the scope of multiple textbooks. Moreover, the curriculum is a document for the textbook developers and is reviseable subject to the paradigm shift in the discipline.</p> Mazhar Hayat Muqaddas Butt Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 124 135 10.46662/jass.v10i1.334 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COMPETENCE OF HEAD TEACHERS, UTILIZATION PRIORITIES AND RELATIONSHIP WITH SCHOOL PERFORMANCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/335 <p>The study aimed at finding the impact of school Head teachers’ budget management competencies, utilization priorities and relationship with school performance. The objectives of the study were; (i) to identify the budget management competencies among Head Teachers of secondary schools, (ii) to explore the priorities of head teachers regarding the utilization of Budget in secondary schools and (iii) to find out the relationship of secondary schools Head teacher’s budget management competency on school performance. The population consisted of 431 head teachers (202 male &amp; 229 female) working in secondary schools of district Sargodha. All 352 head teachers were taken as sample. Two research instruments i.e., questionnaires for head teachers on a five-point rating scale and a checklist on three points were developed. The reliability coefficient Chronback Alpha value was .904. The major findings of the study were; Majority of Headteachers were good enough in budget management competencies and there was a positive and moderate correlation between the financial competencies of head teachers and their school performance. It is recommended that a committee of senior Head Teachers may be notified by the competent authorities for guidelines on financial issues.</p> Mushtaq Ahmad Farah Shafiq Hafiz Muhammad Umer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 136 142 10.46662/jass.v10i1.335 The CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING IN ART & DESIGN: PAKISTANI TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/295 <p>Globalisation has demanded expert labour markets, diversified skills, and high levels of vocational education. To refine the skills and knowledge of the people is central&nbsp; to gaining and sustaining economic empowerment, particularly in the context of continuing globalisation. CBT is based on specific, measurable objectives related directly to instructional activities. In favourable situations and settings, The passage discusses the effectiveness of Competency-Based Training (CBT) as a training methodology, but emphasizes that it is not the only approach to designing training. It suggests that trainers and curriculum consultants should have a clear understanding of the concept and standards underlying CBT and other curriculum models to design more effective programs.</p> <p>This study also highlights the significance of Art &amp; Design Education and Training in the development of a country, and how CBT can be used to provide learners with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude. The success of competency training is said to depend on effective curriculum implementation.</p> <p>This case study explores the challenges and opportunities of Competency-Based Training in Art &amp; Design from the perspectives of Pakistani teachers.</p> <p>Keywords: Globalisation, Workforce, Economic competitiveness, CBT (Competency-Based Training), Art &amp; Design Education, Curriculum Implementation</p> Mohni Saif Irha Ali Ali Dr Farzana Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 143 147 10.46662/jass.v10i1.295 RELATIONSHIP OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT WITH SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER PERFORMANCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/338 <p>The main purpose of the study was explored the relationship of perceived organizational support with secondary school teacher performance. The main objective of the study was to find the relationship of perceived organizational support with secondary school teacher performance. The study was quantitative in nature and Peearson Product Movement Method was used to explore the relationship between two variables. The population of the study was secondary schools of District Sheikhupura. All the teachers of secondary schools of district Sheikhupura according to their demographic characteristics were taken as the sample. All the teachers of male and female public schools were selected as sample from each tehsil.&nbsp; At second phase using simple random sampling technique sample (n=250) was selected. Self-developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. For analysis of data, inferential statistics were used. Pearson&nbsp;&nbsp; Product Movement Method was applied to analyze the data. The findings of the study was that there was moderate positive significant relation exist&nbsp; between organizational support and job performance.</p> Sana Ishfaq Dr. Sumaira Munawar Dr. Khadija Sittar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 148 153 10.46662/jass.v10i1.338 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ LEADERSHIP STYLES AND TEACHERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/339 <p>The goal of this specific research was to look into the relationship between the leadership styles used by school administrators and the organizational citizenship behaviors displayed by teachers. The study was quantitative in nature and Pearson Product Movement Method was used to explore the relationship between two variables. The population of this study consisted of all of the school teachers from public sector schools in Lahore. 400 teachers were selected as a sample of the study. Self-developed questionnaire was used for data collection.&nbsp; It was found that there were highly significant and positive associations between all of the sub-dimensions of transformational leadership styles and transactional leadership styles and the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. As a result, it is recommended that administrators practice more of the transformational and transactional leadership styles to create an environment that is more conducive, efficient, and effective for functioning and imparting information.</p> Burhan Ud Din Dr. Khadija Sittar Dr. Sumaira Munawar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 154 160 10.46662/jass.v10i1.339 The OVERT NARCISSISM AND ITS IMPACT ON INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF YOUNG ADULTS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/341 <p>The current research examined the relationship between overt narcissism and interpersonal relationship among young adults. A correlational research design was employed to assess the relationship among studied variable. Grandiose Narcissism Scale and Relationship questionnaire scale was used to collect responses from participants. A sample of N= 200 participants of age range 18-24 (M=21.6, SD =1.25) was selected through purposive sampling from Government and private universities. Grandiose Narcissism Scale and Relationship questionnaire scale was employed to assess overt narcissism and interpersonal relationship respectively. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant positive relationship between overt narcissism and interpersonal relationship among young adults. It also hypothesized that there was a significant gender difference in overt narcissism and interpersonal relationships among young adults. The date was analyzed through SPSS (Version 20). Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages was run for demographic variables. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was employed to assess the relationship between overt narcissism and interpersonal relationships. Independent T-Test used to administer gender differences. The result showed that there is no significant relationship between overt narcissism and interpersonal relationships of young adults. Moreover, it showed that females are more prone to overt narcissism as compared to males. The results are discussed in the light of literature.</p> Noreen Fatima Syeda Urooj Naqvi Laiba Israr Ayesha Aziz Naveed Ahmed Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 161 166 10.46662/jass.v10i1.341 WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE: A STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN SARGODHA https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/342 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between work-family conflict and work-life balance among secondary school teachers in Sargodha. Philosophical roots of quantitative approach lie in the positivism. The research adopted quantitative approach adopted correlational research where the relation was explored between the variables. Variables were measured through cross-sectional survey. The population of the study was drawn from all public secondary schools in the Sargodha area. Sargodha has 390 government secondary schools, with 1954 secondary school teachers working there. Two stage random sampling technique was employed for the study. At stage first, schools were selected while at stage second the schools were considered clusters and all the teachers working therein were considered clusters and their teachers were part of the sample. Instrument if the study was comprised of three sections (demographic data sheet, Work-family conflict Scale and Work-life balance Scale adapted with prior permission and were pilot tested. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to the data. Present research concluded there was a positive relation between the Work-family conflict and Work-life balance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key Words: Work, Conflict, Work-family Conflict, Life, Work-life Balance</p> <p><br><strong><br></strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Dr. Rizwan Ahmad Dr Sumaira Majeed Shabana Kausar Rabi Naveed Ahmed Taseer Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 167 178 10.46662/jass.v10i1.342 EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/345 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The aim of the quantitative correlational study was to investigate the association between students’ academic performance and emotional intelligence. In this study, 700 10th graders from 20 high schools in the district of Lahore were randomly selected. By administering the Bar-On (2002) “Emotional Quotient Inventory Short form,” students’ emotional intelligence was assessed, whereas their academic achievement was determined by their results on the ninth-grade final examinations. Techniques for inferential statistical data analysis were used, including Pearson <em>r</em>, the independent sample t-test, and linear regression.According to the study's findings, academic achievement and emotional intelligence are favorably associated. Academic achievement and emotional intelligence mean scores varied across male and female students. The outcomes also showed that, at the secondary level, learners’ academic performance was significantly impacted by their emotional intelligence. The findings of this study showed that academic achievement in secondary schools is significantly influenced by emotional intelligence. The findings showed that emotional intelligence abilities are necessary for good students to perform well in school.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Naveed Ahmed Taseer Dr. Ahsaan Siddique Shabana Kausar Rabi Atika Maqsood Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 179 190 10.46662/jass.v10i1.345 THE IMPACT OF LEARNING STRATEGIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF TRANSNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS (TNE) https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/363 <p>This study investigates the impact of learning strategies on the academic performance of transnational higher education (TNE) students. In the context of Pakistan, where traditional rote-learning methodologies are prevalent, this research focuses on understanding the learning strategies adopted by transnational university students and their influence on academic outcomes. The rote-learning methodology is a traditional technique adopted by the students in higher education degree programs in the universities of Pakistan. This technique has made domestic students the passive recipient of information during their lectures in classrooms and hence influence their learning outcomes (<a href="#_ENREF_1">Bal-Taştan et al., 2018</a>). The study aims to bridge the gap in research regarding the correlation between learning strategies and academic performance among transnational students. The significance of this study lies in its potential to shed light on how learning strategies affect academic success and satisfaction levels among TNE students. The research employs a cross-sectional, quantitative, survey-based approach to gather data from transnational students enrolled at the IVY College of Management Sciences (ICMS) in Lahore, Pakistan. The collected data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The findings reveal that learning strategies, particularly microstrategies and keys of memory and metacognition, are significantly correlated with academic achievement. Moreover, student satisfaction levels are also positively associated with academic performance. The results suggest the need for targeted training programs to enhance learning strategies among students and promote a deeper understanding of the relationship between learning approaches and academic success.</p> Irha Ali Mohni Saif Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 191 197 10.46662/jass.v10i1.363 EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR ENHANCING TEACHING SKILLS OF ESL TEACHERS AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL: TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/367 <p>This research examines the impact of in-service training programs on the teaching practices of ESL instructors at the higher education level. Employing a qualitative data analysis approach, data from surveys and insights from in-person interviews were combined to generate the study's findings. A random sample of forty ESL teachers from various regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was selected, with ten teachers from Lahore participating in interviews following the completion of online surveys. Thematic Analysis was performed on the data, offering a comprehensive understanding of the teachers' overall perceptions. The findings of this study contribute to the existing knowledge on the effectiveness of in-service training programs for ESL instructors in the higher education context. The qualitative analysis provides an overview of the sample's general perceptions, delves into the intricacies and specific experiences of the instructors. These research findings have implications for ESL education policy and teacher professional development programs. They will inform educational institutions and policymakers about the effectiveness of in-service training programs and highlight areas for improvement.</p> Zobia Asad Dr. Fareeha Javed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 198 207 10.46662/jass.v10i1.367 PSYCHO-SOCIAL CHALLENGES FACED BY WORKING WIDOWS IN PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/403 <p><em>Widowhood is a significant life event that brings about various emotional, social, and economic changes for the woman, who navigates the challenges of grief, loss, and the adjustments required in her roles and responsibilities. The objective of this study was to explore socio psychological and emotional challenges faced by a working widows in Pakistan. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted to see how working widows faced different challenges and to analyze the social and cultural factors influence on their mental health. The sample of the study consisted of 12 working widows with age range of 35 to 59 years, who have been facing psycho-social challenges since spouse death. The data was collected through in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions. Before collection of data a pilot study was conducted in order to polish the questionnaire. Privacy and confidentiality were maintained throughout the process. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the results. Participants frequently mentioned the absence of moral and emotional support in their lives. They expressed feelings of loneliness, difficulty in decision-making, and a lack of emotional outlets. Moreover, the nature of moral and emotional support they lack is primarily related to matters of children's upbringing, domestic affairs, and financial responsibilities. The research also uncovers the impact on children's mental health after losing their fathers. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maryam Zafar Humaira Yasin Uzma Ashiq Khan Nazia Salah ud Din Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 208 218 10.46662/jass.v10i1.403 ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES FOR UNIVERSITIES IN DIGITAL ERA: A FRAMEWORK FOR E-LEADERSHIP https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/414 <p>Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is focusing on quality and innovative approach to higher education in the country. To meet the challenges of technology era, HEC introduced its digital policy for universities, specifically Policy guidelines for online working in 2020. To implement any policy, Leaders play a key role in the organization.&nbsp; This study aimed to develop a framework of E- Leadership for universities to cope with the challenges of digital era. The study employed quantitative research approach. All academic and administrative staff employed in HEC (Pakistan) recognized public universities comprised the population of the study. Four public universities were selected randomly from 10 short listed universities. Universities were short listed on the specific criteria of size of the university, HEC ranking, online readiness and available technology facilities. Survey was conducted. Adapted questionnaires were used for collection of data from 650 university employees on technology usage practices, attitude, behavior and technology related competencies of the university leaders. Statistics were applied using SPSS. Study concluded that technology is playing its role in modifying the work dynamics and leadership practices in higher education. The university leaders are crucial in development of digital culture in the institution. Based on the findings, a framework for E-leadership was proposed for digital policy implementation in public universities. It was required for understanding the dynamics of work environment and leadership attribute needed in digitalized work environment. The key dimensions highlighted in the framework included E-Leadership style, E-Leadership orientation, E-Leadership competency &amp; skills and lastly, Digital services &amp; infrastructure.</p> Abira Ismat Butt Uzma Quraishi Fakhra Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 228 236 10.46662/jass.v10i1.414 DWELLING IN SHELTER HOMES: PERSONALITY DISPOSITIONS, COPING MECHANISMS, AND DEPRESSION https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/384 <p>Residing in shelter homes has become a safety option for runaway women. The primary objective was to understand the females’ personality dispositions, coping mechanisms, and depression. A purposive sample of 90 female residents of shelter homes from 5 different cities, namely Lahore, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, Rawalpindi, and Faisalabad, was recruited. The females aged between 17 to 80 years, with an average age 28.23. A correlation survey method was used with Urdu-translated versions of assessment measures. Spearman’s correlation and Multiple Linear Regression were used for data analysis. Findings showed that women experiencing low self-esteem reported high depression. Most depressed females were less likely to use a problem-focused coping mechanism. Even though almost all the male perpetrators were educated and employed, it did not reduce the incidence of abuse inflicted on the females. Results can be used to assess the mental well-being of these females and improve their living conditions.</p> Aiza Humayun Masha Asad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 237 243 10.46662/jass.v10i1.384 INDIGENOUS FEMINISM IN POSTCOLONIAL SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA: RESILIENCE, RESISTANCE, AND RECLAMATION OF IDENTITY THROUGH MONGO BETI’S “MISSION TO KALA” AND MUMTAZ SHAHNAWAZ’S “THE HEART DIVIDED” https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/446 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The paper investigates the relationship between colonialism and female identity formation. This paper also aims to present the development of the female identity in Pakistan and Cameroon that are postcolonial countries. As, it exposes the role of traditions and culture of postcolonial countries in subjugation as well as empowerment of women. The researcher has attempted to present a case for colonial after-effects on the identity of the inhabitants of the two former colonies of Africa and South Asia, based on several background studies. This paper concludes that the genuine liberation cannot be achieved without unity of the sexes. Furthermore, a country's degree of freedom is based on how free its women are to exercise their right to choose. In a similar vein, a society's degree of civilization can be inferred from how its members treat women. This paper derives from an interest in Postcolonial studies. It has used as a tool for researching the phenomena of postcolonialism and colonialism. The theoretical foundation for this paper is formulated by postcolonial discourse theory, and the textual analysis of the novel is limited to matters relevant to this discourse.</p> Maryam Tariq Dr Amara Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 11 1 244 251 10.46662/jass.v10i1.446 NAVIGATING THE CHALLENGES OF DOCTORAL JOURNEY: VOICES OF THE STUDENTS PURSUING THEIR STUDIES ABROAD https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/254 <p>Doctoral students face certain difficulties and challenges while participating in academic and research activities during the course of their PhD studies in a foreign university. They make attempts to seek cooperation from the academic communities to find a way out and to cope with the emerging situation. The present study aims to examine doctoral students’ experiences of such difficulties and challenges, their experiences with the language while engaged in their doctoral studies, orientation to their study program, and the academic environment of the university. A phenomenological approach was used to explore doctoral students’ experiences. Fifteen participants were purposively selected from public sector universities located in different cities in Austria. They were interviewed and field notes were taken. The interview transcripts were analyzed by reading the text several times and identifying the emerging themes. The finding of the study revealed that most of the difficulties and challenges were a function of the lack of preparation before coming to Austria, the relatively different academic and research culture of the host universities, and a lack of orientation to the university system after arrival. Learning the German language was found to be significant in social life but it was not a challenge in the academic life of the students within the university. The study has implications for international students who should plan their studies, get an orientation to the studies immediately after arrival, and should be flexible in learning the language for social and academic integration.</p> Syed Abdul Waheed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 100 113 10.46662/jass.v9i2.254 EXAMINING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ENGAGEMENT AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: A CASE OF PUNJAB https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/258 <p>This study was designed to explore secondary school students’ academic engagement and its relationship with their achievement. The (n=3200) students participated in this correlational study that were randomly selected from 80 schools of Punjab. Data were collected through the Academic Engagement Scale (AES) that consisted of 26 Likert-type statements. Validity was made sure by three educational experts while the reliability was confirmed through Cronbach’s alpha = 0.821. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were applied to analyze and interpret the results. Descriptive statistics’ results revealed that students have a competent level in academic engagement while results of inferential statistics (Pearson r test) indicated a positive moderate relationship between students’ engagement and achievement. Moreover, a significant gender-wise and administrative division-wise difference was found in students’ academic engagement. It is recommended that teachers could foster students’ academic engagement by considering the role of gender and locale. Furthermore, school administration may focus on improving students’ involvement in the classroom activities by providing flexible learning environment.</p> Dr. Nisar Abid Dr. Amna Saeed Dr. Mumtaz Akhter Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 41 49 10.46662/jass.v9i2.258 TEACHERS AS FACILITATOR TOWARDS REDUCING ANXIETY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/248 <p><em>The quantitative study was intended to compare the responses of female secondary school teachers with the responses of girl’s secondary school students regarding teacher as a facilitator towards reducing anxiety of secondary school students. The deductive research study was focused on research question; is there a significant difference among the responses of secondary teachers and students regarding the role of teachers in reducing anxiety. Aimed at this purpose all Secondary schoolgirls and female Secondary School Teachers (SSTs) of grade 9<sup>th</sup> and grade 10<sup>th</sup> in District Swabi were designated as the population of the study. The sample size of (164) female Secondary school teachers and girls students of class 9<sup>th</sup> and 10th were selected through convenient sampling technique by using Yamane Formula. Two Distinct questionnaires for the purpose of collecting data from female secondary teachers and Secondary schoolgirl’s were developed for the purpose of data collection. Research data were collected and analyzed by the help of SPSS 21. The data were analyzed by Mean, Standard Deviation as well as t-test was applied for the comparison. Results showed significant of difference between the responses of female secondary school teachers with the responses of girl’s students. Female teachers were more agreed with the statements that they help out the students in reducing anxiety as compare to the responses of girl’s secondary school student. It was recommended that professional development courses should be enriched related to reducing students’ anxiety.</em></p> Muhammad Idris maksal Minaz Dr. Shaista Irshad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 33 40 10.46662/jass.v9i2.248 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT’S CORRELATION WITH SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN PAKISTAN: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/243 <p>Political evolution is the ultimate objective of all political systems. Political development is the enemy of progress in several domains, as well as the syndrome of difference, equality, and mass ability creation. There is a substantial positive association between a country's national and socioeconomic circumstances and its political growth. This includes the GDP growth rate and the urbanization rate, mass mobilization and engagement, educational growth, and democratic principles. Since its birth, Pakistan has been on a path of political growth and has seen several social transformations and a modernization drive in its society. Pakistan has reached a modest rate of growth, and its society is in a transitional phase between a traditional agricultural civilization and an industrialized one. Although the development process is gradual, it is rather stable with few setbacks. The rapid expansion of information technology and increased communication platforms have ushered in new developments and modernization movements in society. In this paper, we will explore if there is any correlation between political development and social conditions in Pakistan.</p> Syed Husnain Haider Sajid Mehmood Shahzad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 21 32 10.46662/jass.v9i2.243 FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF ISLAMIYAT ON SPIRITUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF LAHORE, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/261 <p><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/ibtasam/Abstract.PNG"></p> Dr. Ibtasam Thakur Hina Akbar Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima Kainat Akram Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 50 60 10.46662/jass.v9i2.261 CONCEPT OF WELFARE STATE IN ISLAM ( RIYASAT-E- MADINA) IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF PAKISTAN: AN ANALYSIS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/269 <p><em>Islam is a complete system that fulfills the religious, social, individual, economic and political needs of human beings. It is not a religion but a complete ‘Deen’. It is a system that covers all aspects of individual and collective life of humans. The Islamic theorists like Al- Mawardi, Al- Gazali, Al- Farabi and Alama Iqbal also gave their theories to describe the Islamic state and also mentioned the duties of the Imam or Khalifa in Islamic state as he or a group of persons working as cabinet has to work for the betterment of the people living in an Islamic state whether Muslim or Non-Muslim. The qualities of an Islamic / welfare state have been discussed at length and compared these with the present situation of Pakistan under the present regime boosting to develop this state as Riyasat-e Madina. All that discussion made the researcher able to reach on the conclusion that the good initiatives taken by the present Govt. if continued can change state of Pakistan into an Islamic welfare state soon.&nbsp; </em></p> M. Munib KHALID Bushra Qamar Muhammad Sohail Fazal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 61 66 10.46662/jass.v9i2.269 ESTIMATING THE WATER POVERTY IN SEMI-ARID DISTRICTS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/270 <p><em>An increase in population and water demand, climate change, and changes in land-use patterns are severe problems in Pakistan. Water management in Pakistan has been a provincial matter after the 18<sup>th</sup> amendment. Each province in Pakistan measures the water on its own intention and indicators. The current study aims to map the water scarcity status through the water poverty index (WPI)</em><em> using the Multiple Indiactor Cluster Survey (2018)</em><em> at the</em><em> semi-arid</em><em> district</em><em>s</em><em> in Punjab, Pakistan. WPI was estimated by using the components named “Resources,” “Access”, “Capacity”, “Use”, and “Environment”. Each component score was calculated using ifferent indicators, assuming equal weights for all components. </em><em>Layyah</em><em> (</em><em>57.6</em><em>) and </em><em>RajanPur (48.03)</em><em> had the best and worst situations among all districts in 2018.</em><em> The findings showed that the absence of physical water resources in these districts is not the only factor of domestic water shortage but environment and capacity also plays a significant role in achieving the domestic water need. Due to their socioeconomic ineptitude, lack of infrastructure, and restricted access to water, the region is experiencing severe to high levels of household water poverty. </em><em>This study's results showed that WPI is an operative tool to measure water scarcity and could be used to make an important priority for water management.</em></p> Muhammad Hassam Shahid Abedullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 77 90 10.46662/jass.v9i2.270 IMPACT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOME INEQUALITY ON TAX https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/272 <p><em>Nexus of total factor productivity, inequality, and taxes (selected SAARC Countries) along with other control variables like corruption, consumption expenditure, capital, and labor. For short and long-run elasticities along with different estimation techniques are applied. Total factor Productivity (TFP) data of&nbsp; SAARC countries were unavailable, so only Pakistan, India, </em><em>Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are estimated.</em><em> Tax to GDP ratio is low, and </em><em>income equality is negative as it will decrease the tax revenue, and increase in anti-corruption policies will increase tax revenue, an increase in TFP will reduce in tax revenue, increase in employment, there will be an increase in tax to GDP ratio and consumption expenditure is found negative and significant on tax The results confirm that most of the variables of the long-run elasticities are significant. All the models are robust&nbsp; because there is no slope heterogeneity, heteroscedasticity, multicollinearity, and cross-section dependence among the variables.</em></p> Arifa saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 77 90 10.46662/jass.v9i2.272 SELF-PERCEPTION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS ABOUT THEIR CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/274 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The teacher as a person who has a great influence on overall student achievement. And all these achievements of students learn and achieve in the classroom with the guidance of the teacher. This study was conducted to take the perception of the teachers regarding their classroom in terms of instructional planning, learning environment, classroom management, subject matter competencies and students’ achievement. In quantitative term, the survey method was adopted to conduct this research study. The sampling size for the study comprised of 370 teachers (per college 5 teachers) from 40% (74) colleges of the population. In order to collect data the researcher was self-developed an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. Pilot testing from 40 teachers in 20 colleges (per college 02 teachers) was carried out in order to check the reliability. The Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated in order to check the reliability of the instrument. The reliability coefficient obtained for the overall questionnaire was .82 Alpha levels. The finding of the study through the descriptive statistics on SPSS- 26, the college teachers’ perception regarding their classroom performance in terms of “instructional planning, Subject matter competencies, and Student Achievement” was found consistency in the perception of the teachers. However, the result of college teachers’ perception regarding their classroom performance in terms of “learning environment and classroom management” were found inconsistency in the perception of the teachers.</p> Hina Munir Afaf Manzoor Muhammad Anwar Mughal Prof. Dr. Mumtaz Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 91 99 10.46662/jass.v9i2.274 IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON JOB SATISFACTION: A SEQUENTIAL MEDIATION https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/280 <p>Current study investigates importance of POS and its related benefits on JS with sequential medication. Data is collected from three government universities of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Total respondents were 429 from three public sector universities. Results of study demonstrated constructive and significant impact on JS (job satisfaction). Sequential mediation of IM and EM has also been tested.&nbsp; Results showed positive and significant impact of IM &amp; EM in the relationship. Time horizon which was used is cross sectional, with sampling technique of stratified random sampling. To collect data, questionnaire survey (self-administrated) was used among the employees of three public sector universities. To analyses data, SPSS &amp; Process by Hayes was used. In analysis descriptive tests like reliability, frequencies, mean, SD, correlation, and statistical technique for hypothesis testing, mediation analysis used. This study contributed to existing literature of POS and adds value to existing practices by examining theoretical model of sequential mediation that not used in any sector in Pakistan. This also explored that POS is an important indicator for job satisfaction through sequential mediation of IM and EM.</p> Mehboob Alam Fozia Gul Syed Intasar Hussain Kazmi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 106 116 10.46662/jass.v9i2.280 SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND AFFECTIVE STYLES OF EMOTION REGULATION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/230 <p>Being social animals human being always strive to interact with others, which needs social competence. However they need to manage their emotions also. This particular research was carried out to find the relationship between social competence and different affective styles of emotion regulation of university students. Moreover the gender difference on social competence and affective styles of emotion regulation was also checked. Correlation research design was used and data were collected through survey technique from male and female students of Foundation University, COMSATS University, Quaid-i-Azam University, Capital University and International Islamic University. Social Competence Scale and Affective Style Questionnaire were administered on university students for data collection which were analysed using mean, Standard Deviation, t-Test and pearson correlation. A significant correlation between social competence and affective styles of emotional regulation (adjusting, tolerating and concealing styles) was found. It was also observed that gender difference between university students on social competence was significant. However gender difference on emotional regulation was non-significant. Using positive affective styles of emotional regulation can help to reduce stress, tension, anxiety and depression among university students.</p> Dr. Mussarat Jabeen Khan Gulmeena Tahir Dr Fouzia Ajmal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 11 20 10.46662/jass.v9i2.230 WOMEN PARTICIPATION INTO THE AGITATIONAL POLITICS: A CASE STUDY OF LAHORE AND PESHAWAR https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/286 <p><em>Freedom Movement had been explored by many scholars since independence from multiple dimensions. The role of women into freedom movement remained less explored due to focus on overall all India politics. The purpose of study is to explore detailed role of the Muslim women in civil disobedience movement of 1946 and their contribution in strengthening demand for Pakistan. the study is qualitative which is based on archival sources to get first hand information about the topic. The research reveals active participation of women in civil disobedience in Punjab and NWFP which was far ahead of their time. They came out of seclusion and participated in agitation and even offered arrests. Their participation built and enhanced pressure over the then provincial governments. </em></p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong></p> <p>Civil disobedience, Women politics, Punjab, NWFP</p> Mamoona Kanval Dr. Ruqia Kulsoom Dr. Gull-i-Hina Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 117 124 10.46662/jass.v9i2.286 INTERPERSONAL CLIMATE AND STUDENTS’ ENGAGEMENT IN NIGERIA UNIVERSITY: A CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/264 <p>The significant relationships that lecturers develop and maintain with their students in institutions cannot be overlooked as studies recognize it to have a positive impact on their academic outcomes. This study assessed lecturers interpersonal climate and students’ academic engagement in Nigeria university. &nbsp;The study adopted the correlational design of the survey type. &nbsp;The population for the study comprised all&nbsp;49,153 undergraduate&nbsp;students of university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The required number of respondents for the study was ascertained using the Krejcie and Morgan table and 381 participants were chosen using a convenient&nbsp;sampling procedure. A self developed &nbsp;survey instrument titled “Interpersonal Climate &nbsp;and Students’ Engagement Survey” (ICSES)&nbsp;was constructed based on the focus of the study to gather primary data by means of empirical survey-based research methods which allows for the test of research hypotheses formulated for the study. ICSES scale was subjected to face and content validity and reliability coefficient of .89 obtained adjudged the instrument reliable. &nbsp;The factors necessitating these interpersonal climate in school were explored&nbsp;and results show that except for the interrelation of the construct of shared vision on academic engagement with a low factor loading of .30, all other factors explored (Empathy, Leadership Pattern and compassion) were through measures of the constructs with high factor loading &gt;.50 and have significant interactions with student engagement. The formulated hypothesis reveals that a significant relationship exist between the constructs understudied with p-value &lt;.05. The implication of this findings as well as recommendations were highlighted&nbsp;in this study.</p> Habibat Abubakar Yusuf Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 11 1 1 10 10.46662/jass.v9i2.264 ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES FACED BY UNIVERSITIES DURING COVID 19: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB UNIVERSITIES https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/266 <p>COVID 19 devastation affected humanity socially and economically whose impacts would remain for many decades. One sector of human life which was affected badly has been education sector. The students of educational institutions suffered a lot all around the globe. The present descriptive research analyzed those effects and suggested solutions to cope with the aftereffects being produced. Major objective of this research was to identify the educational issues acclaimed due to pandemic in the higher educational institutes and to analyze the current situation prevailing in the higher educational institutes due to COVID 19. The researchers recommended the solutions to come out of this situation by using mix method of research and took the stakeholders higher education teachers and taught on board for their contribution into research. A semi structured survey, interview and observation check list was taken as a tool for collecting data from the population. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect data from the samples. Randomization and convenient sampling technique was used to collect data from the graduates and teachers who underwent the pandemic teaching and learning process in Pakistani Universities. Overall 400 students and 20 teachers took part in the process of research. The results and findings attained from these participants showed that COVID disturbed their teaching and learning activity a lot and they faced immense problems during two years. It was found that this irreparable loss seemed to prevail in their future and it needed to be compensated through make up classes or refresher courses in their perspective fields.</p> Dr Arshad Hussain Hashmi Dr. Muhammad Asif Nadeem Ms. Zaib Un Nisa Dr Farzana Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 11 1 114 123 10.46662/jass.v9i2.266 EXAMINING THE ALIGNMENT OF SINGLE NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF WAKFIYAT-E-AMA TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADE 1-3 WITH MORAL VALUES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/346 <p>This research aimed to analyze the extent to which Punjab's Wakfiyat-e-Ama text books for grades 1 to 3 incorporate sustainable development elements and promote moral values. The study employed a qualitative research design and content analysis as the research tool, which involved systematically categorizing and analyzing the textbook content based on predefined criteria. The study revealed that topics such as peace, diversity, excellent health and wellbeing, and a sustainable way of life were given priority, while other factors such as morality, political principles, energy conservation, environmental concerns, climate change, and access to clean water received less attention. The predominant themes in the Wakfiyat-e-Ama text books were honesty, mutual respect, compliance, toleration, empathetic freedom, and kind-heartedness. The study suggests that there should be a separate section at the end of each book with extracurricular moral activities to allow students to apply what they have learnt. Moreover, moral values and SDG chapters should be integrated into all subjects to expose students to these principles more extensively for their success in life. The content analysis method provided a structured approach to evaluate the textbook content and identify areas for improvement in promoting sustainable development and moral values.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Qurratulain Rehan Iman Tanveer Kausar Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 11 1 125 136 10.46662/jass.v9i2.346 CHILDREN’S FICTION AS AN IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS: ANALYZING SELECTED BRITISH SHORT STORIES FOR CHILDREN AS WORKS OF COLONIAL LITERATURE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/448 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Building upon select short stories by Enid Blyton and Rudyard Kipling, this research aims to explore propagation of the imperialist ideology through British short stories for children. The select stories are examined as part of the discourse developed to glorify Britain and depreciate its colonized subjects. The study discusses the stories as they explore colonization in light of the theories developed in the Metropole. Keeping in view that children’s fiction promotes various ideologies, this research argues that short stories for children may become an immensely significant medium in fostering the imperialist ideology, thus functioning as Ideological State Apparatuses through the very important learning years of childhood. For this purpose, the theoretical framework of Ideological State Apparatuses by Louis Pierre Althusser has been employed. This incorporation serves to elucidate the role of educational ISAs in shaping the minds of children from early childhood. Children’s indoctrination in such manner may produce new generations of people that might support the colonialist stance both knowingly or unknowingly. A useful strategy to counter this situation is writing back to the Empire by producing children’s books that function as sights of decolonization. The real challenge, however, is to make de-colonial literature accessible to young minds around the globe.</p> Tayyaba Fatima Anwaar Dr Amara Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 11 1 137 148 10.46662/jass.v9i2.448 NUMERACY MANIPULATING SKILLS AS A SUSTENANCE OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-CENTRAL, NIGERIA https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/203 <p><em>Education is an instrument used to empower an individual to become a useful member of society through the acquisition of basic knowledge, skills and values. It has been observed that </em><em>many of the students that went through universal basic education of 9-years programme are unable to read and perform basic calculations.</em> <em>The study therefore, want to examine the extent to which this assertion can be upheld in North-central, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. The population comprised all students of Universal Basic 1 to 9 while the target population consisted of 645, 177 upper basic students in North-central, Nigeria. </em>Researchers-developed<em> numeracy manipulating test was constructed which contained thirty multiple-choice items. Scale content validity was computed and obtained 0.88 S-CVI. Kuder Richardson KR 20 was employed and obtained 0.81 reliability coefficient. Four research objectives were </em>conceived<em>. One research question was raised and answered using percentage. Three hypotheses were generated and tested using an independent t-test at 0.05 level of significance. One of the&nbsp;findings revealed that students possessed 41.61% numeracy skills. No significant difference existed based on gender. A significant difference existed based on school ownership and school location. It was concluded that the performance of students was weak and might inhibit national development. It was recommended that t</em><em>he governments at all levels should give more attention to the UBE programme being the foundation of other forms of education in Nigeria.</em></p> Makanmu Akanmu Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 1 12 10.46662/jass.v9i1.203 TRANSITIVITY CHOICES AND GENDER REPRESENTATION: A FEMINIST STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF ALI’S “THE BOOK OF SALADIN” https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/208 <p>The present study is aimed to explore how women and men characters are constructed through linguistic choices in Ali’s novel <em>The Book of Saladin </em>(TBOS). Halliday’s (1985) transitivity model as suggested by Mills (1995) in her <em>Feminist Stylistics</em> has been employed for data analysis. To strengthen the analysis, Eggins’ (2004) insights are also given consideration. The data comprises 6 extracts from the novel. A sample size of 107 clauses was drawn to focus on process-participant analysis. The findings indicate that Ali (1998) in TBOS makes a use of all types of processes but with different frequency of occurrences. The women characters are portrayed mainly through Material (41%), Relational (5%) and Behavioral (5%) processes while the men characters are ascribed with more mental (9%) and verbal (4%) processes. These findings indicate that Ali (1998) has represented his women characters more active as compared to his men characters as far as romantic scenes are concerned. The current study confirms Mills (1995) claim that transitivity model is best suited to understand the depiction of gender through linguistic choices.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Transitivity choices, Feminist Stylistics, Women, Men, Ali, The Book of Saladin (TBOS)</p> Asma Iqbal Kayani Behzad Anwar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 13 25 10.46662/jass.v9i1.208 AN ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE LEVEL CHEMISTRY STUDENTS’ OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT TEACHING PRACTICES IN CLASSROOM https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/111 <p><em>To learn scientific concepts and to develop problems solving ability, students should be presented to an environment where inquiring and investigation is encouraged through interactive teaching approaches. To this consequence, a quantitative study is conducted to analyze intermediate level chemistry students’ observations regarding the current teaching practices in classroom. 680 students, 40 from eight Government Higher Secondary Schools (GHSSs) and 45 from eight Government Degree Colleges (GDCs) were selected randomly from all of Government Higher Secondary Schools and Degree Colleges. The study prevails the practice of traditional method while interactive approaches and use of audio-visual aids are more or less ignored consequently inquiry based interactive learning environment has not been achieved in classroom. Lack of accountability of teachers’ performance and shortage of required teachers in government institutes makes the situation worse. It has been suggested that interactive approaches and use of audio- visual aids should be promoted in order to develop problems solving ability in a science classroom. Dutifulness among teachers should be ensured through proper check, so as need to overcome shortage of teachers.</em></p> Swehra Moeed Prof.Muhammad Rauf Shahzadi Seema Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 26 32 10.46662/jass.v9i1.111 COLONIAL RULE AND MUSLIM WOMEN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/210 <p>Relevant to any attempt for amelioration of woman’s conditions was the history of Muslim people in general and that of Muslims in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent in particular. This paper highlights Muslim women’s struggle for their rights movements in British India. Their continuous struggle altered educational and political institutions, allowing them to emerge from seclusion and participate more actively in the nation's public life.</p> <p>It is said that when women in the developed countries were agitating against their own male regarding their rights, a similar struggle had begun in the subcontinent where men started encouraging participation of women in education and politics, appreciated, and sometimes patronized it. The imperialists in India reversed the economic and social milieu. By strengthening system, British fortified the position of the feudal and tribal lords which not only contributed towards solidifying the struggle for Muslim Women’s Rights in the British India but also resulted in lowering the status of women. The British, on the other hand, did not believe it was necessary to extend their politics into all aspects of life. As a result, local laws continued to apply in family and personal matters like as marriage, guardianship, and inheritance, and the status quo between men and women was maintained.&nbsp; After a prolonged protests and struggle for women’s rights, the central legislature undertook legislation on issues relating to Muslim women such as child marriage, property rights, widow remarriage, divorce, etc. Muslim women had to resisted on the laws imposed by imperialists as most of it were the violation of their fundamental rights, and that they were mostly successful i.e., law of inheritance 1937. The paper shows that women's struggles for educational and political freedom had a significant impact in the British India Particularly in 1940s during Pakistan Movement. Everyone is aware of the social changes/developments that occurred at that time. However, few people acknowledge that women had a key role in bringing about these developments. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that women have achieved tremendous progress and have paved the way for more reforms in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr Naila Maqsood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 33 41 10.46662/jass.v9i1.210 ‘GOODBYE TO SCHOOL’: EXPLORING THE LIFE OF TEACHERS AFTER EARLY RETIREMENT https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/217 <p>The trend of early retirement has increased over the last few years. Many teachers applied for early retirement after experiencing a ‘strict’ academic environment in the schools. The purpose of the present study was to grasp an in-depth understanding of the early retired teachers' life in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The study aims to seek the answers to the questions: How did the school teachers decide to take early retirement and what were their personal and social activities after early retirement? Participants’ description of life after early retirement was explored through narrative research while interviewing fourteen teachers who took retirement at least three years before retiring and approached through snowball sampling. The results were presented thematically (business to live happily, health and home, and joy and freedom). Most participants started or expanded their business, lived a happy life, paid attention to health and enjoyed freedom after early retirement. The research will help understand teachers' lives after taking early retirement through their life experiences and their activities. The study has implications for the school department on how they can better the teachers' social and personal lives during the service to enjoy life and feel happy while working in schools.</p> Ishaq Amanat Syed Abdul Waheed Nadia Gilani Muhammad Saqib Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 42 50 10.46662/jass.v9i1.217 ASSESSING INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF THE HEADS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/117 <p><em>Instructional leaders are effective principals and these leaders can lead their team towards achievement of assigned targets.</em> <em>Instructional leadership is directly linked to supporting and helping student learning and classroom teaching. This study intends to evaluate how principals’ instructional leadership behavior make a difference in the instructional process of public secondary school, as perceived by a sample of 185 teachers of Sargodha district. A questionnaire called PIMRS </em><em>(Hallinger, 1982)</em><em> was adopted for collection of data. Data analysis made it clear that teachers rated their heads high on all sub scales of instructional leadership and also identified some ignored dimensions in this regard. The results revealed significant gender differences in the perception of teachers about heads’ instructional supervision, their being highly visible, encouraging teachers to develop professionally, and the heads efforts in providing incentives to students for their effective learning and better achievement. Findings also suggest that the opinion of experienced teachers about different dimensions of instructional leadership was more positive as compared to the newly inducted teachers. It was suggested that heads may be trained to be effective instructional leaders for improving students’ achievement and performance.</em></p> Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Farhat Jabeen Ghazanfar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 51 59 10.46662/jass.v9i1.117 IMPACT OF EXTRINSIC REWARDS ON EMPLOYEE INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIOR: ROLE OF WORK ENGAGEMENT AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/102 <div>This study investigates the impact of extrinsic rewards on employee’s innovative work behavior (IWB) and explores the role of employee work engagement as an intervening mechanism bet</div> <div>ween extrinsic rewards and employees IWB. Besides, it investigates the moderating role of perceived</div> <div>organizational support (POS) for the associations of extrinsic rewards andemployee work engagement.</div> <div>Data (N = 307) was collected from the highereducation sector by using survey method, comprising of faculty members and administrative staff of Pakistani universities. The findings revealed that</div> <div>extrinsic rewards enhanced the employee IWB. The results show the mediational role of work engagement, and the relationship of extrinsic rewards and employee work engagement is found to be more salient in high</div> <div>perceived organizational support as compared to lower one. The findings are discussed in terms of its implications for theory and practice at the end.</div> Samina Yaqoob Dr Naveda Kitchlew Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 60 72 10.46662/jass.v9i1.102 EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON FAMILY BONDING https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/198 <p>This article describes the effects of using social networking sites on family bonding. Study was conducted in GC University, Faisalabad during March and June 2019. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the students. Only those students were randomly approached who spent minimum two hours using social networking sites in a day. A survey was conducted with the help of trained volunteer. 210 questionnaires were distributed, therefore, only 195 questionnaires were found filled and incomplete questionnaire were excluded from the study to maintain the authenticity of study. To analyze the data, SPSS 20.0 was used. The result of the study indicated that mismanagement and excessive use of social media networking sites were highly affected on the family bonding. It was also notable that the students were irritated and disrupted while using social media networking sites and they also accept that their usage of SNSs affected the relationship with family members.</p> Dr Arshad Hussain Hashmi Kinza Mubeen Babak Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 73 78 10.46662/jass.v9i1.198 NON-SUICIDAL SELF INJURY (NSSI) IN ADOLESCENTS: DILEMMA IN DIAGNOSIS OF A CASE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/12 <p>Non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors are getting prevalent in third world countries especially in Pakistan. This case report describes a typical case of Non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in a young female (most vulnerable population) with symptoms of cutting different body parts that she mimic from other friends. The difference in intention and gains of both the behaviors can helps in diagnosing and treatment, preventing invasive medicinal and psychological treatments, reserving available healthcare resources. Similar cognitive, emotional, psychological and behavioral factors underlie and perpetuate non-suicidal self-injury and emotional disorders. This brief case report aims to explain the dilemma of identifying the case and to target emotional disorders in treating comorbid borderline personality traits.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maryam Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 79 82 10.46662/jass.v9i1.12 EPOCHAL CHANGES IN CONTEMPORARY NARRATIVES? A PERFORMATIST ANALYSIS OF TRUST EXERCISE BY SUSAN CHOI https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/223 <p>Among various post-postmodern theoretical propositions to signal the end of postmodernism, performatism by Eshleman (2008) is also considered to be a significant development in the literary theory. It is not just a theoretical perspective but also a do-it-yourself manual that invites researchers to further explore and analyse literary works from performatism perspective. The current research paper is an attempt to analyse one of the current popular novel Trust exercise by Susan Choi (2019) from performatist perspective with the overarching research questions if various features of performatism are present in the literary work. The aim is to ascertain if performatism could stand out to be a suitable label to define the current crisis of literary theory in which researchers and scholars are trying to fill the gap that has arisen after the pronouncement of the death of postmodernism. The researcher has found that although there is monism, double framing and theism in the novel but complexity of subjects, ambiguity, and open-ended closures are still among the salient features of the novel. The deviation from postmodernism is there yet more features and works need to be explored in order to develop a comprehensive contemporary literary theory.</p> Ali Ammar Munawar Iqbal Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 83 89 10.46662/jass.v9i1.223 EFFECTIVENESS OF GLOBALIZATION AND HUMAN CAPITAL ON MARKET & NET INCOME INEQUALITY IN BRICS COUNTRIES: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/207 <p>This study scrutinizes the impact of defacto and dejure GLOB (KOF GLOB index 2018) on Income inequality on economically emerging countries; BRICS countries. The defacto GLOB indicates the estimate of GLOB including variables representing activities and flows; de jure estimate includes variables which show policies representing enable flows and activities. Our analysis separates the impact of globalization on net and market income inequalities. Pretax/transfer and the post-tax/transfer GINI indices were employed as the measures of income inequality. This analysis used balanced panel for BRICS countries for the period 1990-2015. Economic globalization both defacto and dejure showed positive sign that depicts a significant relationship with dependent variable. It explains that defacto political has positive sign and dejure political globalization decreases inequality while economic globalizations in both divisions have positive sign and significant impact on inequality. Interestingly, defacto social globalization has positive sign but dejure social has positive sign. Moreover, the purchasing power parity and age dependency both have negative sign and significant influence on inequality. These conclusions point out that social and political globalization may be a hindering factor for governance in these countries.</p> Khaula Walayat Dr. Mahmood Khalid Qamar Dr. Zahid Iqbal Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 90 99 10.46662/jass.v9i1.207 A STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION AND PHYSICAL TRAITS OF TWO COMPETING STREET PATTERNS: NARROW MEANDERING AND WIDE GRIDIRON https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/236 <p>A street is a passageway for people in a built environment and is one of the essential elements of urban planning. Streets convey a city's history, urban form, and socio-cultural values of societies that shape it. Street patterns must be carefully planned to create safe environments for everyone, particularly youngsters and elders. There are two common street patterns in history: meandering and gridiron. The development of these two opposed street patterns is examined in this study using historical discourse. In this study, the deductive approach is employed to distinguish between the physical traits of the street types mentioned above. According to this study, meandering street patterns reflect more concerns to human senses, socio-cultural values and aesthetics than gridiron. This research instigates further investigation in this regard to create inclusive, safe streets for everyone</p> Aneela Yaseen Nida Jawad Waqas O. Khel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 100 110 10.46662/jass.v9i1.236 GREEN ROOFS: MORE THAN JUST A PRETTY FACE https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/237 <p>Green Roof is basically a traditional concept which is revived and executed to focus and improve adverse effects of our urban environment. Benefits and impacts of green roof are not fully understood and valued. This paper reviews and discusses the different benefits of green roofs as solutions in reducing the energy, maintaining indoor temperatures, enhancing sound insulation and &nbsp;fire resistance, increasing life span of the roof, providing green spaces in concrete jungles, reduction of UHI effects and improved air quality. In addition to all this green roof also increases the aesthetics of buildings and different research have shown that green roof also improves the energy performance of buildings in summers and winters.</p> Nida Jawad Dr. Syeda Raaeha Tuz Zahra Abidi Dr. Amna Jahangir Jahangir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 111 120 10.46662/jass.v9i1.237 PERSONALITY TRAITS, EMOTION REGULATION AND MARITAL SATISFACTION AMONG WOMEN IN COMMUTER MARRIAGES https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/293 <p>The aim of the current study is to examine the relationship of personality traits, emotion regulation and marital satisfaction among women in commuter marriages. Furthermore, the study will also explore the predictors of marital satisfaction of women in such type of marital relationship. The correlational method was employed for the study and the sample of 142 women in commuter marriages (N= 142) were selected through convenient sampling technique. The age of the recruited participants was between 22-36 years (M= 28.21, SD= 3.85). The Psychological instrument were used in the study; Big Five Inventory, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Marital Adjustment Test to measure personality traits, emotion regulation and marital satisfaction respectively.The Pearson Product Moment Correlation revealed that Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Openness showed significant positive relationship with marital satisfaction whereas Neuroticism showed significant negative relationship with marital satisfaction. As for the second variable of emotion regulation, Cognitive reappraisal showed significant positive relationship and Expressive Suppression showed significant negative relationship with marital satisfaction. Regression analysis (Multiple Hierarchical Regression) revealed Neuroticism and Expressive Suppression as significant negative predictors of marital satisfaction and Cognitive Reappraisal turned out to be significant positive predictor of marital satisfaction.</p> Dr. Afsheen Gul Sidra tul Muntaha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 11 1 121 130 10.46662/jass.v9i1.293 Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Production Networks https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/60 <p>The article is part of an emerging South-centred critical perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Despite growing academic interest in critical CSR, the existing literature is relatively silent on gendered outcomes of CSR practices. This article intends to fill this gap in the CSR literature by initiating a conversation about the dynamics of gender and CSR approaches in global supply chains with particular reference to the Global South by providing a specific institutional context of CSR for reflection. Empirically, the research focuses on a region in Pakistan where a large number of female home-based workers stitch footballs for Western brands. The findings are based on a qualitative study that unpacks the complexities of CSR in Global Production Networks (GPNs) and reflects on the unintended negative consequences that arise when gender-blind CSR approaches are uncritically envisaged and implemented in the Global South. The study reasserts the need for broader and more inclusive CSR approaches in GPNs. The authors suggest that contextualized and gendered CSR approaches are necessary to improve labour conditions in international supply chains.</p> Farah Naz Dieter Boegenhold Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 11 1 279 294 A SIMULATION BASED STUDY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION OF RESIDENCES IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/187 <p><em>A house in composite climate of Lahore (Pakistan) needs intensive cooling in summers; energy recovery ventilation to reduce humidity during monsoon and comfortable indoor temperature during winters. All these conditions have to be fulfilled with a reduced load on energy resources. Recent trends in construction and design of residential buildings in Pakistan symbolize uncontrolled use of energy resources. There is no data available with planning and developing authorities of housing sector that shows an account of energy loads of built houses. The potential of conservation of energy will be analyzed by actually studying the cooling and heating loads of recently constructed houses</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong><em><strong>:</strong> Energy Conservation Potential, Module Study, Simulations</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> YASMEEN ABID MAAN Abid Maan Maryam Jameel Dr Munazzah Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 11 1 104 113 10.46662/jass.v8i2.187 GENDERED FEDERALISM: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES TO WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN SINDH, PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/256 <p><em>This research article will examine the challenges and prospects of women participating in the politics of Sindh. Generally, in Pakistan the women are always suppressed and they are neglected in policy making process and the political system of Pakistan mainly dominated by the male and the subject of policy making is considered as the subject of of the male. Despite this, women have been active in the politics of Sindh from the time of the Pakistan movement. Benazir Bhutto also hailed from Sindh and became Prime minister of Pakistan twice once in 1988 and then in 1993. However, the women in Sindh have a very limited role in the politics of the Province.</em> <em>The research aims to analyze various </em><em>Ideological, </em><em>socioeconomic, political, and psychological constraints and the challenges the women face in Sindh. The paper mainly emphasizes the role of Sindhi society, centuries-old traditions, predetermined gendered roles- patriarchy and male dominancy in social and political institutions, and religious misperceptions that barricade women’s political representation in the province.</em></p> Dr Jalil Ahmed Dr Naila Maqsood Dr. Sumaira Nawaz Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 11 1 133 140 HOW BUILT ENVIRONMENT SHAPES THE MENTAL HEALTH https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/241 <p>Architecture is all about understanding the impact of design on satisfaction, mental health and general wellbeing . “We shape our building and building shape us”, mused Winston Churchill in 1943 while considering the repair of the bomb-ravaged House of Commons. Built Environment has a significant impact on health and well-being. Unsatisfactory spatial relations and low quality of built environment may cause numerous stressors and reflect in users’ health, both in their physical conditions as well as mental health problems. In this article the different mental health problems and their possible solutions with built environment planning are reviewed and discussed. This article also focuses on to develop a more holistic approach that encourages mental health and help patients live happier and healthier life.</p> Nida Jawad Dr . Masha Asad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 11 1 122 132 10.46662/jass.v8i2.241 AUTONOMOUS CLASSROOM AS PRODUCT OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES AND MOTIVATED LEARNERS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/197 <p><em>This paper addresses the issue of how to enhance motivation in tertiary level EFL learners to lead them towards achieving independence in learning. Based on a case study at the Global College of Engineering and Technology, Muscat, Oman, it critically examines the scope of application of John Keller’s ARCS model that exhibits four steps for enhancing learners’ motivation - Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. It recounts how these motivational techniques have been used in classrooms and how each of these steps has enhanced the learners’ self-confidence and their interest in learning the language. The paper argues that efficient use of ARCS model can transform extrinsic motivation into intrinsic one. It recommends that educators should adopt the ARCS model to sustain learners’ interests and accomplishments of the set learning objectives. It makes students reach a level where they begin to take charge of their learning, resulting in strong learner-teacher autonomy in language acquisition.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp; </strong><em><span class="tagit-label">Keller's ARCS model, </span><span class="tagit-label">Foundation program students, </span><span class="tagit-label">Index Terms-motivation</span></em></p> Pooja Chhabra Copyright (c) 2021-12-25 2021-12-25 11 1 1 9 10.46662/jass.v8i2.197 IMPACT OF WORKPLACE BULLYING ON THE ATTITUDE AND PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/186 <p><em>Workplace Bullying is a form of cognitive extremism at work. It revealed in misbehavior, activities, and verbal remarks, often deceptive, used to destabilize the person. This behavior results in mental surrender. Bullying leads to the victim’s withdrawal from an institute. It often happens in the form of deleterious remarks, unjustified blame, and submitted abuses. It destabilizes the freedom of expression, isolate the victims, querying them personally and professionally, and deny their access to resources to perform their task. It threatens the victims’ health and make them insecure. The current study is designed to investigate the impact of workplace bullying on the attitude and performance of university teachers. One hundred teachers (38 males and 62 females) were selected randomly from a total of 700 faculty members. Data were collected with the help of self-developed instrument, Teachers Workplace Bullying Attitude and Performance Survey (TWBAPS) with Cronbach Alpha reliability .965. Mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and t-test were applied to analyze the results. There was a significant difference between male and female teachers’ attitude and performance. Female teachers were victimized by their colleagues and heads. They showed a more aggressive attitude and low performance. Male teachers showed more violent behaviors than females. It is recommended to stabilize the academic environment at university level by discouraging the negative attitude among faculty members.</em></p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong><em>Academic bullying, aggressive attitude, teachers’ performance</em></p> Muhammad Naveed Khalid Asif Iqbal Farah Shafiq Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 10 15 10.46662/jass.v8i2.186 ACADEMIC WRITING CHALLENGES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/181 <p><em>This descriptive qualitative research sought to explore as what would be the best writing approach adopted to teach academic writing skill to the undergraduate university students to identify and minimize the identified problems. The aim of the study was to strengthen the academic writing skill of university students. For this purpose, thirty undergraduate students were selected and involved in focus group discussions to highlight the problematic area in the field of academic writing. Thematic analysis helped to understand the problems faced by the students and suggestions were made on the basis of the study’s findings. The study revealed the students’ inability to use appropriate vocabulary. These students lacked the skill to express themselves in their own words, and often their written work would look patchy. English being the foreign language to the students hampered their ability to think in the target language. The present study contributed to understand the problems and suggested process approach of writing to be adopted by the faculty to overcome the academic writing related problems.</em></p> <p><span class="tagit-label"><strong>Key Words</strong>: <em>Process Approach,</em></span><span class="tagit-label">&nbsp;<em>Product Approach, Genre Approach, Academic Writing</em></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Syeda Naureen Mumtaz Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 97 103 10.46662/jass.v8i2.181 MANAGING THE POROUS BOUNDARIES: IMPACT OF WORKING FROM HOME ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS DURING COVID 19 https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/129 <p><em>The closure of educational institutions due to COVID-19 has forced universities to shift from in-class to online education. We aim to address an aspect of this shift that remains widely unacknowledged, namely, the gender inequalities associated with the struggle to manage two separate domains (home and work) under the same roof. Using cross sectional data gathered through an online survey from various universities and degree awarding institutions, we explore the question of how working from home during the covid-19 pandemic has shifted (or not shifted) the work-life balance of male and female university teachers. Our research shows that work from home during covid-19 has some negative repercussions for the work life balance of female university teachers. Females are facing difficulty in maintaining a healthy work life balance. They reported more work family conflicts; more family demands and challenges; and less satisfaction while working from home as compared to male university teachers. The findings of our paper suggest that this new workplace arrangement has disproportionately increased the overall burden on female university teachers in both the important domains of their life (Family and work).&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp;</strong> <em>COVID-19, Gender, Work from Home, Work Life Balance</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Farah Naz Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Dr. Ghazala Noureen Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 85 96 10.46662/jass.v8i2.129 COVID-19 PANDEMIC: DIFFICULTIES FACED BY SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS DURING EMERGENCY REMOTE TEACHING THROUGH ONLINE LEARNING AND THEIR OPINIONS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/184 <p><em>The objective of this study was to explore the difficulties faced by special education teachers during emergency remote teaching through online learning to special needs students during covid-19 pandemic and discuss their opinions. Population of study was special education teachers who were teaching to special needs students of secondary level at government special education institutions Faisalabad division of Punjab province Pakistan. The sample of the study was 15special education teachers were selected through random sampling technique. Phenomenology pattern was used in this research as a method of research.&nbsp; Semi structure interview was used as a tool of research. Results of the study clearly showed that almost all the special education teachers were motivated towards providing emergency remote teaching to their special students through online learning system. They have practiced a variety of strategies to provide online education to their students but they face a lot of difficulties in this regard. As majority of special students were from low socio economic background, so they have a lack of online learning facilities i.eandroid cell phones, laptops and internet connection etc. It was interesting to know that all the students who have sufficient facilities of online learning were not utilizing this for constructive purpose and to overcome their academic problems.&nbsp; They were merely wasting it over social media and gadgets are not utilizing for constructive purpose which was creating anxiety for their parents.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong><span class="tagit-label">Covid-19, pandemic,special needs students, special education teacher, emergency remote teaching, online learning</span></p> Hafiz Tahir Jameel Abid Masood Khan Tanzila Nabeel Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 78 84 10.46662/jass.v8i2.184 STRESS, SLEEP QUALITY, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION AMONG MARRIED WORKING WOMEN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/120 <p><em>This research was an initiation to explore the relationship of stress, sleep quality, psychological well-being and relationship satisfaction among married working women. Stress, sleep quality and relationship satisfaction were explored as predictors of psychological well-being in married working women. Correlational research design was used to measure the relationship between these variables. Convenient sampling technique was used to recruit sample. The sample of study was comprised of married working women (N= 200) age ranged between 25 to 59 years. Working Women Stressor’s Scale (WWSS) (α=.87), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(α=.74), Ryff Psychological well-being Scale(α=.74), and Relationship Assessment Scale (α=.72)were used as data collection tools. Results showed significant positive relationship among stress, sleep quality, psychological wellbeing and relationship satisfaction. Stress, sleep quality, and well-being emerged as predictors of relationship satisfaction in married working women.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong><em><span class="tagit-label">Stress, Sleep Quality, Psychological Well-being, Relationship satisfaction</span></em></p> Sadia Shahjahan khan Shamaila Asad Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 69 77 10.46662/jass.v8i2.120 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF FASHION CONSCIOUSNESS OF CONSUMERS https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/176 <p><em>Fashion conscious people allocate a large part of their budget on a latest fashion. The present study assessed the socio-economic and psychological factors that play significant role in fashion consciousness. A convenient sample of 200 individuals (men=100 and women=100) of age between 22 and 44 years from Multan, Pakistan was taken to study the correlates of fashion consciousness. The estimates of ordinary least square showed that education, monthly income, materialism, and media exposure had significant positive impact, and price consciousness had significant negative impact on fashion consciousness of the sample, which partially support consumption theories (e.g., Absolute Income Hypothesis’ and ‘Relative Income Hypothesis). The study has implications for both consumers and producers.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp; </strong><span class="tagit-label"><em>Fashion consciousness, materialism, price consciousness, absolute income hypothesis, relative income hypothesis</em></span></p> Syeda Azra Batool Syeda Shahida Batool Atif Khan Jadoon Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 41 51 10.46662/jass.v8i2.176 INVESTIGATING SEVERAL SIMILAR QUESTIONS TYPES IN TURKISH, KURDISH, ENGLISH, RUSSIAN AND GERMAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/175 <p><em>Language is used as a tool of communication in all over the world, and each society or country may adopt a different language leading various dialects or language usages. In order to interrogate different aspects, multiple question types are utilized in a language. Also, questions are globally used to get information about a topic / issue, ask for confirmation, request something or clarify some controversial aspects almost in all languages. In addition, some questions are directed to speakers via question words such as what, where or how; on the other hand, some questions are conducted via helping verbs, adjuncts or question tags. Foreign language learners first learn affirmative, then negative and finally questions forms in the target language that is why it may be inferred that using questions in a language requires improvement and experience. The current study aims to find out some similar questions types in Turkish, English,Kurdish, Russian and German; hence, an analysis has been conducted on question samples obtained descriptively in those languages. The results of the analysis indicated that there are some similar types of questions such as general questions, special questions, tag questions and alternative questions in both languages.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> <em><span class="tagit-label">Types, question, Kurdish, English, Turkish, Russian, German</span></em></p> Mehmet Veysi BABAYİĞİT Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 52 59 10.46662/jass.v8i2.175 THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY IN PAKISTAN FROM 1988 TO 1999 (SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SINDH PROVINCE) https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/169 <p><em>This research article’s primary goal is to determine the triggers and implications of Pakistan’s political instability and its effects on the political situation of Sindh during the democratic decade from 1988 to 1999. Despite abundant natural resources, Pakistan is one of the only countries where political unrest has severely hampered the social and political development of the country. So, this paper aims to understand the leading factors of political instability that weakened the country’s political growth and led the nation in general and Sindh province, in particular, to suffer social and ethnic problems in society. To understand the issue deeply, the researcher used unstructured Interviews as a research tool with law-makers, academicians, and political scientists. However, many interviewees accepted that the lack of enthusiastic leadership, the Role of the weak judiciary, the passive role of civil bureaucracy, and political ethnicity had been the leading factors for political and social unrest. Thus, the study’s findings would help the law-makers and academicians of different colleges and universities to design their policies and curriculum. Additionally, this paper would help various nationalists and political parties of Sindh province to comprehend the genuine reasons for unrest in the area from 1988 to 1999.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp; </strong><em><span class="tagit-label">Political instability, Weak Judiciary, Political ethnicity, Foreign interference, Role of civil bureaucracy</span></em></p> Nazir Siyal Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 60 68 10.46662/jass.v8i2.169 A CRITICAL REVIEW OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE IN RESPONSE TO DIVIDEND PAYOUT POLICY IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/139 <p><em>The current study explains the relationship of dividend payout policy on the business performance of companies that exist in sugar of Pakistan. 100 companies are selected from sugar sector. Relationship of dividend payout policy and business performance was controlled with four variables based on relevant theories. These variables include size of company, growth of company, leverage (debt to equity ratio) and corporate governance index. Panel data is collected from 2012-2017 (six years) and then analyzed with unit root, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, OLS regression, Lagrange multiplier, Huasman test, Fixed effect and Random effect models. Following key findings for each research objective were obtained by applying the adopted research method on the data through the adopted method of analyses: The results of the study show sugar companies showed no sign of a relationship between their dividend payout policy and profitability and so there is no controlling factor effective due to the absence of any relationship. Thus, the hypotheses were rejected in case of these two industries.</em></p> <p><strong>Key Words:&nbsp;</strong><em><span class="tagit-label">Company Performance, Dividend Policy, Tobin’s Q, Size, Growth, Leverage, Corporate Governance Index, </span></em><span class="tagit-label">Dividend Payout</span></p> Dr. Nisar Ahmad Bazmi Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 16 39 10.46662/jass.v8i2.139 EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES AND WRITING SKILLS ON STUDENTS’ LEARNING AT SECONDARYLEVEL IN PAKISTAN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/171 <p><em>The study examines the effects of communicative strategies and writing skills on students learning atsecondary level in Pakistan. The study is experimental in nature and the researcher applieda pre-test post-test equivalent group experimental design to draw the conclusion.For the facilitation of study, the researcher presumed the male students of grade 10 studying at Government Higher Secondary School Renala Khurd.Government Higher Secondary School Renala Khurd was selected as population in Okara district&nbsp; as the spot for intervention.The selection of the students was made through convienience and informed consent which tantamounted to simple random sampling technique. Experimental group and control group comprised of thirty students each as such sample size for this experimental study was stretched over 60 students. The experimental group was exposed to communicate through communicative language teaching-based activities included in the (NECL, 2006) for grade 10 &nbsp;while the control group was imparted intervention through traditional methods for two months.</em></p> Mubashar Mahmood khan Copyright (c) 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 11 1 114 121 10.46662/jass.v8i2.171 Information and Communication Technologies for Educational Purposes: Measuring Intensity of Students’ Attitudes towards Digital Journey https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/151 <p>Applications of information and communication technologies are generating ease for human beings since their birth. Continuous practice of ICT directly enhances attitudes towards innovative and novelty of thoughts. Teachers and students are assets of state that bring technical revolt in the nation having constructive attitudes towards information and communication technologies. Concerning the worth of information and communication technologies; present study was designed to investigate male and female secondary school student’s attitudes towards information communication technology enrolled in science, arts and computer science streams of rural and urban secondary schools of District Lahore. List of secondary schools, where Punjab Government has established computer labs, were obtained from Punjab Education Department. Sample comprises of randomly selected twenty schools; five male and five female schools. From each school researcher selected conveniently selected students from rural and urban schools. Data were collected from 1,826 respondents of 10th graders administering <em>Attitudes towards ICT Scale </em>adapting from authors upon request having 12-items mode of 5-point Likert type options. Researchers themselves collected data after ensuring ethical considerations. Results of independent sample t-test and ANOVA reflect that male and female students have about same attitudes towards ICT, rural students have more attitudes towards ICT as compared to urban students and science students had better attitudes than arts students; computer science students had better attitudes then arts students whereas computer science and science students have about same attitudes towards ICT. Present study recommends that urban secondary schools’ teachers and head teachers have to focus on students’ attitudes towards ICT by delivering lectures, providing attractive environment and hiring skilled staff to meet the demands of present technical innovations.</p> Mehboob Ul Hassan Mehboob Haq Nawaz Copyright (c) 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 11 1 32 42 National Identity Perceptions of the Turks of Kosovo and North Macedonia: How Identity Turns into a Shield When Denied? https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/160 <p>Turks of Kosovo and North Macedonia have become members of a nation that has turned into a minority in terms of population and influence both after the dissolution of the Ottoman State and after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. The aim of the study is to determine the identity perceptions of the Turks of Kosovo and North Macedonia. Within the scope of the study, a number of questions were asked to the participants regarding their identity definitions and perceptions by means of semi-structured interview technique. Participants' responses were discussed with a phenomenological approach and qualitative analysis. It was observed from the findings that Turks of Kosovo and North Macedonia experience nationalist feelings with a very high consciousness. They oppose the understanding of Turkishness as an ethnic identity. According to the majority, Turkish identity should be understood as a national identity built on the basis of religion and culture. And it is far from seeking ethnic ties or genealogy. In addition, some participants stated that although they defined themselves with Turkish identity in the past, nowadays they define themselves as Albanian. This situation can be explained as an alienation from the Turkish identity arising from different reasons; such as assimilation and denial. However, some of the participants dealing with questions such as “How can you call yourself a Turk? Is there any Turk left here after the Ottoman Empire? in daily life, state that they defend themselves by making reference to ethnic and ethnocentric implications. Because in such situations where identity is denied, identity turns into a shield.</p> Ümit Öztürk Copyright (c) 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 11 1 189 200 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(189-200) The Impact of Ethical Leadership & Civility on Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/172 <p><em>Purpose</em> – This paper holds the purpose to investigate the impact of ethical leadership and civility on organizational commitment and also to explore mediating role of work engagement in the relationship.</p> <p><em>Design/methodology/approach</em> – With questionnaire survey, the current paper uses a sample of 340 employees from manufacturing sector of Lahore Pakistan. To test the hypotheses, analysis was accomplished by using Statistical Package for Social Science Software, through confirmatory factor and regression analysis.</p> <p><em>Findings</em> – The results revealed that ethical leadership and civility have positive impact on organizational commitment. Strong empirical support also proved that work engagement mediates the relationship between ethical leadership, civility and organizational commitment.</p> <p><em>Research limitations/implications</em><strong> –</strong> This study design is cross-sectional, consequently accuracy of assumption concerning causality is restrictive.</p> <p><em>Practical implications</em><strong> –</strong> Results of this study discovered the importance of ethical leadership behaviors which play noteworthy role in developing employees and ethical organizational culture &amp; support to ascertain an organizational ethical environment that leads to maximize work engagement and organizational commitment. Thus, ethical leadership behaviors &amp; civility might be the key and most suitable practices to be implemented in manufacturing sector of Pakistan.</p> <p><em>Originality/value</em> – This paper adds to the existing ethical leadership and civility literature by identifying work engagement as an additional mediator in the relationship between ethical leadership, civility and organizational commitment</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Ethical leadership, Civility, Work engagement, organizational commitment, JEL Classification</p> Mahboob Alam Fozia GUL Dr. Muhammad IMRAN Copyright (c) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 11 1 173 188 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(173-188) A Study on Association between the Perceptions of Principals and Teachers Regarding College Principals’ Leadership Style in Perspective of Situational Leadership Theory https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/87 <p>The current study demonstrates the association between the perceptions of the designations regarding college principals’ leadership style in perspective of situational leadership theory. This article is quantitative in nature and ex-post-facto research design was adopted. The population was comprised of all colleges which are affiliated with the University of the Punjab in Lahore Division. Multistage sampling technique was adopted for selecting sample. Thus, the sample of the study was comprised of 74 college principals and 370 teachers on the basis of their job experience. The instrument of LBA-II Self/Other was adopted. The data was analyzed on SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was disassociation between the perceptions of the designations regarding the primary, developing and diagnosis leadership style, except the secondary leadership style where was association found between the perceptions of the designations. Whereas, there was no difference in teachers and principal’s perceived leadership style flexibility and effectiveness.</p> Hina Munir Mumtaz Akhter Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 147 155 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(147-155) Gender Representation in English Textbooks: A Study about Public Middle Schools in Punjab https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/137 <p>This paper investigates gender representation in grade 6, 7 and 8 English textbooks used in public schools in Punjab. For a comprehensive analysis, both textual contents and pictures were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The findings show that the female character were under-represented and misrepresented. Not even a single chapter was titled after any female character. Even in the text, they were heavily outnumbered, and generally shown in stereotypical and traditional roles. Shockingly, not even a single female character was portrayed positively. They were mostly shown in a neutral way. The same pattern was observed in the pictures. In spite of the fact that national education policies and curriculum frameworks emphasize heavily on gender parity, the textbooks appear to have failed to incorporate it. This study suggests that textbooks should contain gender parity and represent women in a respectful way so that the students may pick those values and inculcate them.</p> Dr.Muhammad Abid Malik Dr. Irfan Ahmad Rind Abdul Qayyum Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 118 126 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(118-126) Understanding of Mexican Migration to the United States: Rifts and Challenges https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/134 <p><em>It has been decades since legislative issues have thought about social, defense, and compassionate issues of migration which has become a touchstone in U.S strategy discussion. </em><em>Mexican migration to the U.S started in 1848. It has proceeded to the present with no critical interference, something that makes this work movement very particular as a basic segment of the American work advertise. Generally started with enormous development, driven by starvation, political problems, open doors in the U.S; that point eased back, tightened, or unexpectedly finished, from 1850 to 1882, similar to the case of the Chinese. The details show that Mexico is a key source of settlers in U.S and has long been a major source of enemy contact with refugees, but so many have been focusing on Mexico and not the other countries which have also become major sources of illegal immigrants. The United States and Mexico are bordered with California, San Diego, and Baja California, Tijuana, and the Pacific Ocean. The boundary stretches eastward to El Paso, Ciudad Juarez and Chihuahua, Texas, on the Rio Grande. From that point the border continues south-east along the Rio Grande River until the end of it in the Gulf of Mexico. Border stretching of over 1945 miles is insufficiently regulated. Only old solid markers, rusty safety clasp and spoiled dry fence posts can be found in many parts of the place, and the river Grande that over the centuries has continuously changed its course separating both nations. U.S endeavors to control passages and exit adequately have been focused principally along the most profoundly dealt transit courses driving to north. U.S. powerlessness to control all the Mexican boundary has proven that any Mexican involved in operating in the U.S seldom discovers that the frontier is an unlikely trap Through the span of the most recent 170 years, Mexican migrants have to a great extent worked in horticulture, farming, mining, and railroad development. </em></p> Rana Basam Khan Muhammad Nawaz Bhatti Ghulam Mustafa Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 72 82 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(72-82) A Qualitative Understanding of Doctoral Students’ Experience of Embodiment https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/144 <p>Human beings exist in the world ‘bodily’ and their existence is inexorable. International doctoral students’ understanding of themselves and their perspectives of the learning environment is through their embodiment. The purpose of the present research was to understand doctoral students’ embodiment experiences in relation to a culturally and academically diverse university environment. This understanding was gained through the phenomenological lense of qualitative research. For this purpose, thirteen doctoral students were selected through maximum variation sampling from the Austrian public sector universities located in different states. They were doing doctoral studies in various physical and social sciences at different stages of their dissertation. The understanding of the phenomenon was sought through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding the text and categorizing it into themes that emerged while frequently reading the transcripts. The emerging themes include ‘stress and anxiety, ‘confidence and motivation’ and ‘physical fatigue and exertion’. Most of the students experienced ‘confidence’, ‘encouragement’, ‘depression’, ‘nervousness’, ‘homesickness’, ‘stress’ and ‘frustration’ when asked about ‘lived body’ or corporeality. The study has implications in understanding doctoral students’ ‘bodily’ existence in the universities.</p> Syed Abdul Waheed Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 57 64 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(57-64) The Narrative of Hybrid Identity in the Third Space: A Postcolonial Critique of The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/147 <p>The study aims at analyzing the construction and the working of hybrid identity in&nbsp;<em>The Reluctant Fundamentalist.</em>&nbsp;The review of the literature discusses how postcolonial identity research has undergone a paradigm shift in recent times. Among the modern postcolonial critics like Bhabha (1994) and Spivak (2013), 'colonizer' and 'colonized' are dynamically dependent on each other for their subjective constructions. The identities of the 'colonizer' and the 'colonized' are not autonomous; rather, they have mutually exclusive identities—a structuralist stance taken by the earliest postcolonial theorists. Instead, such identities of 'colonizer' and 'colonized' are transcultural and fluid in nature and can negotiate themselves 'in the third space of enunciation' for 'new' forms of 'social collectives' (Bhabha, 1994). This aspect of hybrid identities provides the framework for our research. So, the study, through the textual analysis of&nbsp;<em>The Reluctant Fundamentalist,</em>&nbsp;has applied Bhabha's (1994) concept of 'hybridity' to unearth different aspects of Changez's identity in the wake of changing geopolitical and global scenario after the 9/11 event. The study ends on a note that there is a further need to develop the concept of hybrid identity so that it might enlighten us more about the role of 'cultural materials' in constructing such identities.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Moazzam Ali Malik Shiraz Ahmed Muhammad Ehtsham Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 51 56 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(51-56) Pakistan Faces External Security Threats From Afghanistan and India https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/ojs.jass.pk <p>Pakistan's insecurity and uncertainty derive primarily from the country's eastern and western borders with India and Afghanistan. The withdrawal of NATO forces from Afghanistan in December 2014 created a leadership vacuum and political instability, potentially worsening regional security, particularly in Pakistan. Pakistan also does not want Afghanistan to fall prey to foreign intervention, especially from India, as this would exacerbate Pakistan's sub-nationalism issue. Kashmir's strategic position has been a point of contention between the two countries. Kashmir is vital to both countries because it is the source of water for most of the major rivers that flow into Pakistan. &nbsp;In terms of security issues with India, they are critical because the two countries have fought three wars, resulting in massive human and financial losses as well as destruction of the countries' infrastructure.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zain Ul Abiden Malik Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 1 5 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(1-5) The Constructivist Teaching Approach and Academic Achievement in English: An Empirical Evidence of Secondary School Students https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/167 <p>Constructivism is a vibrant and self-motivated coaching paradigm that implies the establishment of the latest academic conceptions relying on the pupil’s past educational experiences.</p> <p>&nbsp;Constructive teaching approach (CAT) accompanied with PQRST method (Preview, Question, Read, Summarize and Test) considered as an efficient way for progression of the students’ comprehension regarding skills of English subject matter. This study aimed to find the effect of constructive teaching approach (PQRST) on 9<sup>th</sup> graders academic achievement in the provided subject of English. Quasi experimental Pre-test-posttest research design had employed to fulfill the fundamentals of the current study. Two intact groups were randomly selected, and teacher made achievement test used to take the score. Control group was instructed English conventionally whereas treatment group was instructed through PQRST under the shade of CAT. Pre-test scores demonstrated an insignificant statistical difference between both groups but after getting treatment for 12 weeks experimental group exposed a momentous positive statistical discrepancy in scores via getting instruction through PQRST. The current research recommends constructivist teaching approach along with PQRST may be used for the improvement of students’ reading and comprehension skills in the subject matter of English which can enhance their achievement overall.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aroona Hashmi Hina Wishal Dr. Tanvir Kiyani Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 6 15 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(6-15) Role of Personal Factors in Epistemological Access to Higher Education: Comparison of Public and Private Universities in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/168 <p>The aim of this study was to find the difference between the perceptions of students of public and private universities regarding relationship of personal factors (comprising four sub-factors (personal competency, participation in university activities, personal efforts for improvement, personal willingness) and epistemological access. A survey was held with undergraduate students of eight universities (4 public &amp; 4 private) in Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the sample that targeted 1600 under-graduate students of 6<sup>th</sup>semester from two faculties (Information and Technology, and Business School) of 8 universities (4 private and 4 public) situated in the province of Punjab and Islamabad (Capital Territory) in Pakistan. The data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire during the academic session ‘Fall 2018-2019.’ Data was recorded on SPSS and treated statistically; after confirmatory factor analysis, one-way ANOVA was conducted to find the difference between perceptions of students of public and private universities across 5 factors stated above. The results showed that significant difference existed between perceptions regarding provision of epistemological access among four out of five factors. In three cases (personal competency, participation in university activities and personal willingness for improvement) the perceptions of private students were better than the students of public universities, whereas, the public university students’ perceptions were better in personal efforts for improvement. It was deduced from the results of Pearson correlation that there existed a positive relationship among the mentioned constructs— personal competency, personal effort for improvement, and epistemological access. However, no significant difference was found between students of public &amp; private universities regarding provision of epistemological access in their respective universities.</p> Dr. Irfana Rasul Dr. Seema Arif Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences (JASS) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 16 31 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(16-31) Analyzing the Role of Contemporary Teaching Techniques and Importance of Drama in Learning English as a Foreign Language https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/154 <p>This research explores the important activities and principles of the teaching of drama in learning English as a foreign language. This research is qualitative in nature and the analysis is based on theoretical grounds and a strong theoretical framework. It concentrates on the brief history of drama in education, its basic principles, techniques, and the possibilities and advantages that drama in education brings into English language learning. The aim of this research, <em>Drama in Learning English as a Foreign Language</em>, is not only to introduce drama in education to the readers but also present drama in the context of English language learning, and subsequently support the concept of drama being an English language learning method. I define drama, its general concepts, principles, and aims. I concentrate on the role of drama in learning English as a foreign language, its techniques, and the benefits that drama brings into the learning. This research is helpful for the teachers to understand the drama and activates related to it in the classroom.</p> Dr. Saba Sadia Dr. Rana Umair Nadeem Dr. Afsheen Sallahddin Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 43 50 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(43-50) The Popular Political Parties and their Participation in Pakistan’s Democratic System https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/135 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>Since independence of Pakistan on 14 August, 1947; role Political parties are one of the most important and influential element of Pakistan’s politics. Two popular parties have had ruled various periods in Pakistan's history. This article tries to examine their participation and their role in politics and Pakistan’s democratic system. Question arises that how political parties and their actions influence on state’s democratic system. This document also seeks to debate the part of major political parties in the development process of Pakistan’s politics when they are in power or in opposition. The political system in Pakistan is not well developed. As a result, the people of Pakistani are deprived of adequate leadership, which is seen as a threat to Pakistan‘s national security or domestic system.</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><strong>Political parties, power, democratic system, </strong><strong>leadership.</strong></p> Dr. Zahid Yasin Iqra jathol Dr. Muhammad Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 65 71 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(65-71) Foreign Language Teaching and Development of Language skills :A Pakistani Perspective https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/158 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The study was attempted to explore as to what extent English language teaching in Pakistan has been able to develop language skills among the target learners. The researcher intended to evaluate the limit to which the textbook helps in generating competence of all four integrated skills, especially as laid down in the standards of the National Curriculum (2006). &nbsp;The purpose of this study was to create pragmatic awareness among learners, teachers and educational professionals, working in the field of English as Foreign Language. By method , it was a qualitative study, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were the tools used to elicit the data. The participants of this research were selected from public sector schools and organizations including, teachers, policymakers, curriculum developers, subject specialists, and students to examine the effectiveness of grade VIII’s English language textbook on students’ performance . For data analysis themes were developed, coded and summarized in a descriptive mode. The findings of this study reflected that the relevant textbook does not cater to the target learners’ future academic and professional language needs. As a solution to the problems while teaching and learning English as foreign language in Pakistan; this study also offered a model to be followed by the policy makers and practitioners in order to make the existing English language textbook more effectives in terms of foreign language teaching and learning and language skill development.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>:&nbsp; &nbsp;Foreign language acquisition, Language skills, National Curriculum( 2006)</p> Dr. Syeda Naureen Mumtaz Dr.Uzma Quraishi Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 83 92 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(83-92) Whether Households are Willing to Pay for Clean Water Supply in Sialkot, Pakistan? An Elucidation https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/136 <p><em>Waterborne diseases due to contaminated water remain a severe problem in most of the developing world. The situation is serious in Sialkot the district of Punjab where groundwater is contaminated due to effluents' improper disposal. The current study is designed to find the determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) by households for clean drinking water supply in the affected area. A contingent valuation survey approach and a stratified random sampling technique have been applied. A double bounded dichotomous choice question followed by an open-ended question format has been used to elicit WTP and maximum willingness of the respondents for clean drinking water supply. Logit and Multiple Linear Regression Model is used as an econometric tool to analyze the data. The results reveal that as the income of the respondent increases, the WTP for the clean water supply also increases. While multiple regression reveals a monthly mean WTP of Rs. 234.54 which is greatly affected by age, household income, education, and environmental awareness i.e. respondents with higher household income and a higher level of education are willing to pay more for a clean water supply. Residents who are living closer to the tanneries are more affected and their WTP is higher. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Willingness to Pay, Clean drinking water,&nbsp;Contingent Valuation Method, Binomial Logit Regression,</em>&nbsp;<em>Leather Tanneries,&nbsp;Sialkot, Pakistan</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Hassam Shahid Dr.Ashfaq Ahmad Dr.Wasim ul Rehman Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 93 108 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(93-108) Induction Program of Teacher Training of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the Light of Standards for Elementary Teachers in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/130 <p><em>This study looked at the induction training program introduced by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the light of National Professional Standards for Elementary Teachers (NPSET) in Pakistan. For this purpose, five necessary standards for teaching were compared with the induction training. A qualitative research design was used, 20 teacher trainees were purposively selected for detailed interview-based on five National professional Standards for Elementary Teachers in Pakistan. The data were analyzed through thematic analysis technique, the interviews were transcribed, categorize, and then thermalized. From data analysis it was found that the induction program was not based on national professional standards as the focus of induction was not on the professional development of teachers rather its focus was on content teaching. It was recommended that induction should bring some changes within its practice as this program needs to focus more on professionalism rather than content teaching and hence must focus on professionalism rather than content teaching.</em></p> Dr Muhammad Idris Dr. Itbar Khan Adil Khan Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 109 117 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(109-117) Formal Education Vs Health Literacy: An Insight into Treatment Outcome of the Randomized Control Trial of MDR-TB Patients in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/59 <p>This study analyzes the impact of education, health policy initiatives i.e. selection of treatment arms of ambulatory vs. hospital care and financial incentives under taken by the National Tuberculosis Program of Pakistan (NTP) on the outcome of cure of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis patients. The data of 370 patients enrolled in randomized control trial is collected from three TB centers of Lahore, Karachi and Murree and multi-variate logistic regression method is applied. The empirical findings show that formal education and selection of treatment arm do not significantly affect the outcome of the cure. However, health literacy provided by the NTP plays vital role in improving the treatment outcomes. Therefore, it is suggested that health literacy should be focused in our formal education for the improvement of the health-status of the nation. Moreover, WHO (2011) recommendation of shift towards ambulatory care is applicable for Pakistan and financial incentives should continue as it reduces the treatment burden for patients.</p> Ankasha Arif Eatzaz Ahmad Farzana Naheed Khan Razia Fatima Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 127 136 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(127-136) Article Transforming Pedagogy: Studying the Relationship between Students’ Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement at Higher Education https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/143 <p>Recently an increasing focus has been observed on the learner-centred approaches for their role in preparing more independent and skilful graduates. Of these active learning styles, self-regulated learning has received greater attention in higher education. In this context, it is highly important to examine current state of self-regulated learning adopted by students, along with examining the gender differences and the nature of discipline in adopting self-regulated learning. Considering this situation, the prime objective of the study was to map the link between students' self-regulated learning and their academic achievement in their related disciplines, and on basis of their gender. Using the descriptive design, a quantitative survey was used to collect the data from 300 students of two public sector universities of Pakistan. A questionnaire was adopted to collect data from students to measure their level of adopted self-regulated learning and CGPA. Simple linear regression and t-test and ANOVA were applied to reach to certain results. Our findings rejected the main hypothesis that there is no impact of self-regulated learning on students’ academic achievement. Likewise, this study could not identify the difference in view of adopting self-regulated learning strategies by male and female students at higher education. However, in view of measuring SRL at faculty level, students from the faculty of science adopted self-regulated learning strategies to some extent. Next to concrete discussion in relation to these findings limitations and directions for future researches were stressed.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Asia Zulfqar Dr. Bashir Hussain Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 137 146 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(137-146) Use of Non-verbal Communication in Pedagogic Practices at Public High Schools in Lahore https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/170 <p><em>It was a descriptive research which studied the use of non-verbal communication in the pedagogic practices at secondary school level in Lahore. The study was conducted to examine the practices of teachers’ non-verbal communication used in conjunction with verbal communication in actual classroom setting by teachers which affected the participation and performance level of learners. It investigated the students’ understanding, interpretation of and attitude towards non-verbal communication used by teachers and identified the existing barriers for the use of non-verbal communication strategies to improve students’ learning. The non-verbal communication was restricted to five factors—physical appearance, facial expressions, eye contact, spatial distance and paralinguistic. The study was limited to the subject of English (compulsory) at the female secondary schools in public sector. The sample comprised of 1200 students and 40 teachers from female public high schools of Lahore (Punjab), Pakistan. The study recommended that all female teachers at secondary level schools should be provided an orientation in non-verbal communication which would help them to use these skills in their teaching methodologies. While recognizing the importance of non-verbal communication, the curriculum planners and policy makers should take practical steps to make it a part of teacher education programs for the training of prospective teachers. Moreover, an awareness among students shall be created on how to interpret and reflect upon the teachers’ non-verbal communication signals during teaching-learning process.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Non-verbal, physical appearance, eye contact, paralanguage, body movements, facial expressions, gestures, high school, interaction</p> Dr. Irfana Rasul Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Ms Ayesha Afzal Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 156 172 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(156-172) LOTFI A. ZADEH PHENOMENON IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) SYSTEM https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/152 <p>Lotfi A. Zadeh, whose 100th anniversary is celebrated all over the world in 2021, is a genius bestowed by the Azerbaijani people to the scientific world of thought.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Lotfi A. Zadeh the only phenomenon was chosen as a lifetime professor for great services in the field of artificial intelligence from the AI Institute.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The author's article titled "Lotfi A. Zadeh phenomenon in the development of the world artificial intelligence (Aİ) system" describes the life and rich scientific activity of the world-renowned Azerbaijani scientist Lotfi A. Zadeh.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>İt is impossible to understand and imagine the methodology of artificial intelligence, which is currently relevant all over the world, without the philosophy of these sciences, including the theories of Lotfi A. Zade.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>According to Google Scholar, as of February 2021, Lotfi A. Zadeh's work has been cited about 270,000 times in scholarly works, with the 1965 Fuzzy sets paper receiving more than 115,000 citations .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The author also sought to evaluate the methodological and practical relationship of Lotfi A.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Zadeh's idea and scientific navigation in an interdisciplinary direction.</p> KHATIRA GULİYEVA Copyright (c) 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 11 1 201 208 10.46662/jass-vol8-iss1-2021(173-180) Textbooks & Nationhood: A Content Analysis of Punjab Secondary Curriculum English Textbooks During Early Ayub Khan Era in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/133 <p>Textbooks are great artefacts in the hands of governments that help in fostering the sense of nationhood among students. The present study analyses aspects of nationhood as depicted in the Punjab’s secondary curriculum English textbooks of early Ayub Khan’s rule in Pakistan. Adopted as the main focal theme, the concept of nationhood is operationalized into three categories, including modernization, Pakistan society and culture, and glorious history. The sample textbooks include English textbooks of Short Poem Collection and Secondary Stage English that were Published by Punjab University Board during early 1960s. Based on content analysis of textbooks, data findings reveal that the notion of nationhood is taken up through progress-based modernization, promotion of indigenous culture and society as well as military glorious history, and not much on religious ideology as often claimed in scores of analytic writings about textbook contents of Pakistan.</p> Sumaira Noreen Aqsa Tahir Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2021-01-29 2021-01-29 11 1 269 278 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(269-278) Creative Abilities of Students and Teaching for Creativity; A Comparative Study of Public and Private Schools of Lahore City https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/37 <p>This study was designed to explore the creative thinking abilities of primary school students in Pakistan.&nbsp; The study also explored teachers’ perceptions about the creative abilities of students. Multistage sampling was applied to select the sample. Four primary schools (2 from public sector and 2 from private sector) from Lahore city were selected randomly to collect the data.&nbsp; 100 students and 100 teachers were selected by applying cluster sampling. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) were conducted to identify the abilities of students related to creativity. A questionnaire was developed to identify the perceptions of teachers regarding the development of creativity among students. Reliability of the questionnaire was .855. Independent sample t-test was applied to identify the difference between the creativity of public and private sector school students and perceptions of teachers. &nbsp;Findings show that students who were studying in private schools are more competent in creative writing and have more expressive ability than public school students. Teachers of private schools were using the methods and techniques more effectively for teaching creativity. The study has important implications for the development or otherwise of creativity in primary schools in Pakistan.</p> Samra Bashir Humera Amin Syeda Beenish Batool Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 35 42 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(35-42) Evaluation of Ilm Ideas Phase I Programme of UK aid for Education in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/62 <p>The role of donor agencies is considered significant in supporting the social development of developing countries, especially the education sector. UK aid also supports the education system of Pakistan to uplift its education indicators and educational outcomes. Ilm ideas programme was one such reform initiative by UK aid for Pakistan with the purpose to improve access to quality education, increase awareness on transparency and accountability, and enhancing the learning of students. This research was undertaken to evaluate this programme using document analysis technique. The evaluation was done with a focus on recipients’ perspective as it further compared and analysed the results of the programme with outcomes and indicators of education system of Pakistan. This has given the actual picture of the interventions and their outcomes. The research outcomes have multifold significance for education sector of Pakistan, UK aid, indigenous and international research scholar and critics. Programme evaluation practices might also increase as a result of this research.</p> Nauman Abdullah Dr. Sadaf Jabeen Prof. Dr. Muhammad Saeed Akhtar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 101 115 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(101-115) The Emerging trend Women entrepreneurship in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/103 <p>Though the field of entrepreneurship is continuously growing and mature but still there is a need to explore the role of women entrepreneurship in developing countries. This study highlight, how women execute her entrepreneurial venture while facing different challenges such as cultural, social, and economic constraints etc.?&nbsp; Moreover, how she can play her best role for the welfare of society in developing countries. Our results showed that female entrepreneurial activities herald the optimization of their social and economic wellbeing, moreover it benefits to society through, wealth creation, poverty reduction etc. In this study Gioia methodology was undertaken to explore the women entrepreneur growth route in Pakistan. By the analysis of women personal experience author identified different social, cultural, financial constraints during the growth phase. The new emerging model provide the useful basis for future research imperatives.</p> Samina Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 217 230 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(217-230) Development of Oral Communicative Competence: A Teachers’ Perspective https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/100 <p>This study was an attempt to determine the point to which the English language textbook, “English for Class 8” prescribed by the Punjab Textbook Board fulfills the learners ‘language learning needs of English as foreign language in Pakistan. The study aimed to explore as to what degree the suggested textbook increases the likelihood of learning the language and the diligent effort to development oral communicative competence (OCC) among the target learners. A quantitative approach enabled the researcher to comprehensively answer the research question. The results indicate that the relevant course book fails to facilitate the target learners to acquire English as foreign language to enable them to use the language for communicative purposes.&nbsp; The tasks presented in the textbook, do not focus on sociolinguistic and extended verbal expression in speech of the target language. By including tasks that challenge the learners to engage themselves in producing meaningful utterances, the present English language textbook can become even better a tool to develop speech proficiency.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr.Naureen Mumtaz Dr. Uzma Quraishi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 199 216 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(199-216) RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING, EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT, TEAM WORK WITH JOB SATISFACTION https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/97 <p>Current research is designed to check the impact of employee training, employee empowerment, team work on job satisfaction. Employee training, employee empowerment, team work are independent variables and job satisfaction is dependent variable. Overall, 160 employees of banks employees who are working at managerial level are selected randomly. Results indicates that employee training, employee empowerment, team work has significant positive impact on job satisfaction. It is also seen that teamwork is emerging as strong predictor of job satisfaction the employee empowerment is second good predictor of job satisfaction. In future researches, this kind of researches will be also conducted in other kind of industries like hotel industry, telecom sector and education sector. In future researches some other potential predictors of job satisfaction like employee compensation, employee appraisal will also include. It is also better to include some better outcomes like employee loyalty and employee productivity for generalization.</p> Abdul Khaliq Dr. Umar Safder Kayani Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Mir Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 185 198 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(185-198) Urdu Translation and Validation of Trust in Close Relationship Scale https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/96 <p>The current study aimed to translate Trust in Close Relationship Scale in Urdu for married couples in Pakistan and to establish its psychometric properties. The forward and backward translation method was used for the translation of the scale followed by the try-out phase.</p> <p>&nbsp;After determining the cross language validation, in order to confirm the factor structure of the scale, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was run.&nbsp; The sample comprised of 250 participants of different age groups (<em>M </em>= 39.7, <em>SD </em>= 10.1). The results of CFA supported the original three-factor structure of the scale (viz., Avoidance, Benevolence and Retaliation) by providing a good model fit to the data with values of X<sup>2</sup> = 229.61 (<em>df </em>= 110, <em>p </em>&lt; .001), CFI =.91, GFI = .91, and RMSEA = .06. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was α= .87. The convergent validity of the scale was determined on a sample of 100 participants by finding its correlation with Trust Scale (<em>r </em>= .72, <em>p </em>&lt; .001). The results support that the scale has promising.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hira Jahangier Dr. Syeda Shahida Batool Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 173 184 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(173-184) Tracing Cultural Morphing and Diasporic Identical Apprehensions: Post-Partitioned (1947) Contextual Ideologies in Liquid Modern Era https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/84 <p>This research explores the diasporic experiences of South Asian immigrants and cultural ambivalence in Kiran Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss (2006). It highlights the conditions when East Pakistan had to adjust to an altogether new environment separated from their original culture after the Partition of this subcontinent in the year 1947. It reveals that the same historical, ideological, and thematic properties have been coming through generations and diasporic writers select these themes as their major subject of discussion. This research explores the varied nuances of family relationships in the writings of recent diaspora writers like Desai. The surge of globalization has washed away solitary identities. Theories presented by Homi K. Bhabha and Stuart Hall help this study in finding the answers of the proposed research question. This research provides a chance to understand the impact of Post-Partitioned (1947) ideologies behind the theme selection in the writings of diasporic Anglophone writers.</p> Hassan Bin Zubair Dr. Nighat Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 150 161 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(150-161) Risking and Securing Out of School Children: Parents’ Perspective in a Semi-Urban Community https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/82 <p>The present research article deals with the perspective of parents regarding the future of their out of school children and their concept of educational development. Qualitative research techniques which includes in-depth interviews, participant observation and FGDs were used for data collection. Bari Imam, near Quaid i Azam University Islamabad was the research site. Purposive sampling technique was used and only those parents were chosen who had out of school children. To understand the parents’ perspective about out of school children, the concepts have been borrowed from Social Learning Theory, which has three major components e.g. observation, imitating and then modeling. Results of the study indicated that parents had serious reservations about the educational system of Pakistan and the future outcome of education. They preferred short-term to boost their household economy rather than a long term investment on their children’s education which is necessary for the social as well as the personal development. Under the influence of social learning, parents imitating others started sending their children to acquire technical skills, which brought early monetary rewards. Study concluded that, parents were forced to send their children for earning rather than to the schools. Mainstream culture prevailing in the area was to send the children for vocational and technical trainings for rapid monetary benefits. In the current scenario the natives influenced each other which was positive in the context of money and rewards, but negative for the child’s educational development.</p> Mamonah Ambreen Muhammad Athar Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 137 149 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(137-149) Pandemic induced uncertainties, challenges and threats to developing countries: A case study of Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/81 <p>The aim of this investigation is about the economic effects of Coronavirus, broadly branded as COVID-19. Since its initiation in China, it has cast-iron a large number of lives of human while living millions in isolate in view of viral diseases. Where it brings significant human affliction, it additionally makes worldwide economic interruptions around the world. It obstructs development and smooth activity of businesses of all kinds which badly hamper the balance of trade, exports, imports; public spending, remittances, capital formation process and financial markets all are in the dangers of COVID-19. The whole world goes through a similar example for example curfews and lockdown of changing degrees leaving markets and working environments dead. It stops income age as well as acquires an extraordinary expense to states while managing with worldwide pandemic in the midst of general wellbeing. Accordingly, its economies effects are all the more distressing and subverting. The economies like Pakistan which is already facing political and economic trials is in intimidating position alongside negative developments are confronting a lack of assets to battle with it not to mention bearing income misfortune.</p> Mazhar Chishti Ambreen Afzal Madiha Afzal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 126 136 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(126-136) Teachers focus to practice formative assessment techniques and Blooms Taxonomy: Assessment of class practices of prospective teachers https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/80 <p>The key objective of the study was to find out the formative assessment techniques used by teachers of a public sector university of Lahore city. To achieve this objective a B.Ed. (Hons) class comprising 40 prospective teachers and five teachers involved in teaching were purposively selected. Data was collected by developing two instruments: An observation schedule and a questionnaire. To ensure the reliability of observation, inter observer agreement was followed and reliability coefficient of questionnaire was identified as 0.839. Six observations of each teacher were calculated. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software. Findings of study showed that teachers usually ask questions and give examples in classroom and the other techniques to assess students’ learning are generally ignored. Teachers assess lower cognitive abilities of students in the classroom. The study suggests that teachers need training for the use of assessment techniques in their classes.</p> Samra Bashir Tanzila Karim Nadia Akram Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 116 125 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(116-125) A Comparative Study of Teacher’s knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior’s Regarding Evidence Based Practices of Public and Private Universities in Lahore https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/58 <p>This study “A comparative study of teacher’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding Evidence-based practices of public and private universities in Lahore” investigates the difference between knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of public and private university teachers by adopting questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The study targeted the three hundred teachers of public and private universities of Lahore. The main objective of the study was to compare the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of public and private university teachers.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that overall teachers have knowledge, positive attitudes and behaviors towards Evidence-based practices. Findings of comparison indicate public sector teachers have higher knowledge and more positive attitude towards EBP as compare to private sector teachers. But on the other hand, behavior of private sector teachers was more positive than public sector teachers.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Comparative, evidence-based practices, attitudes, behaviors</p> Ms. Tahseen Arshad Dr.Ghazala Noureen Ms. Kiran Karamat Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 93 100 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(93-100) Relationship between Parents’ Education and their children’s Academic Achievement https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/56 <p>This study explored the relationship between parents’ education and their children's academic achievement focusing on father and mother educational level for their children's academic achievement. Tenth class students of government high schools at District Mardan constituted the population of the study. The study employed systematic random sampling techniques to select students as a sample of the study. Through a self-developed questionnaire, the data were collected from the respondents of the study. The findings of the study revealed that the high education of father and mother positively contributes to their children's academic achievement. Large co-relation was found between parents’ education and students’ academic achievement. On the basis of the findings, the study recommended introducing adult education programs, awareness campaigns, and the use of social media for community education.</p> Dr. Muhammad Idris Dr. Sajjad Hussain Dr. Nasir Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 82 92 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(82-92) Utilizing Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) for Teaching English to Non- Formal Learners in Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/51 <p><em>Non formal education is an important education type that helps the availability and continuity of education where formal schooling is not available. English language learning assumes a significant role in the National Educational program. Despite its importance, English Language learning is a problematic area for learners in the formal and non-formal education systems. This research intends to explore the importance of using mobile assisted language learning (MALL) in non-formal English language environments in Pakistan. The population of this research comes from various institutions all over Punjab, Pakistan, where 60 non - formal learners were chosen through simple random sampling method. The research design was experimental whereas test (pre and post) was used as a tool to collect data. The findings present that MALL created a significant impact on English Language learning of non-formal learners. It further ascertained that MALL can be an attractive and result oriented method in non-formal settings.</em></p> Muhamamd Mooneeb Ali Zoobia Asad Shagufta Moghal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 70 81 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(70-81) Influence of Teachers’ Behavior on students’ Academic Achievement at University Level https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/49 <p>The aim of this study was to explore influence of teachers’ behavior on students’ academic achievement at university level. Researcher applied quantitative research method and used simple random sampling technique. Questionnaire were administered among sample of 387 students of social sciences departments of different universities. Collected data were analyzed applying Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results of the study showed that all the factors (Classroom Activities, Rules, routine &amp; support, concerned behavior and Negative Behavior) of teachers’ behavior are highly correlated with each other and with the students’ academic achievement but there was also a positive but weak relationship between two factors Rules routine &amp; support and Negative Behavior. This study concluded that the majority of students were found to be satisfied with the positive behavior of their teachers. The results of the study also showed that there is a significant correlation between the teachers’ behavior and students’ academic achievement.</p> Dr. Hina Munir Dr. Afrina Afzal Rahima Arshad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 60 69 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(60-69) Intervening Role of Metacognition to Improve Task performance in Prospective Teachers: An Experimental Study https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/61 <p><em>The teachers are trained with the aim to provide the necessary knowledge and skills that could help them in dealing with difficulties that they face during teaching, from the planning of a lesson to its implementation. All those skills could be developed among prospective teachers during the phase of their learning. The current study was supposeded to assess the implementation of such skills in classrooms and then measure its effect on the students’ performance. For this purpose, a quasi-experiment was carried out. Consequently, two intact groups enrolled in the third semester of B.Ed. honors at a public university were considered as a sample of the study. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by Schraw and Dennison (1994) was adapted to test Metacognition. Parallel to this, the researcher developed rubrics and observation sheets to assess students’ performance of tasks. Results of the current research reflected that metacognition development has a significant effect on the task performance of students who received the intervention. In light of these results, it is suggested that teacher training institutes should consider the development of Metacognition among their students. Teachers should incorporate different techniques that help them in inculcate metacognition development among their students. </em></p> Ghazal Khalid Siddiqui Huma Lodhi Tahira Kalsoom Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 52 59 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(52-59) The Perceptions of Parents and Teachers about the Classroom Environment and Morality https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/17 <p><em>The basic objective of this study was to explore the issues of morality in the classroom environment and to look for the ways to teach moral values to the students during their classes. This small scale study has tried to provide some solutions to this issue.&nbsp; The present study has adopted a qualitative paradigm for the in-depth analyses of the issues regarding morality and classroom education. The study includes semi structured interviews taken from ten parents whose children are studying at the university level. Moreover ten university teachers were also interviewed to know about their views regarding the issue of how to teach moral values to the students in the classroom setting along with teaching. </em><em>The interviewees were chosen through purposive sampling technique.&nbsp; The interviews were semi structured so that real views of the teachers and parents could be explored and also to make them feel relaxed. The interview consisted of five open ended questions. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed and then they were analysed by utilising the thematic analysis technique. The major themes which emerged after the analysis were that first of all, teacher should be a role model practicing the moral values himself/herself. Another theme was bridging the gap between parents and children, also enhancing friendliness among the teachers and their students so that students could be taught how to observe certain ethics and values in the classroom settings in an informal way like showing some videos or discussing some news which highlight some moral issues. Another theme was to develop a model based on moral education which should be incorporated into the curriculum of the educational institutes. The study provided some effective solutions which if incorporated in the classroom teaching can be helpful in solving the issue of morality among the students.</em></p> Dr.Afsheen Salahuddin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 43 51 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(43-51) ROLE OF PAKISTANI PRINT MEDIA IN PROMOTING CLEAN AND GREEN PAKISTAN CAMPAIGN https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/25 <p>The aim of the research is to inspect the role of Pakistani Print Media (Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Dawn and The News) in promoting Clean and Green Pakistan Campaign during selected time period from February to April in 2019. A sample of Total 356 newspapers was used in which 112 newspapers were taken from the month of February, 124 newspapers from the month of March and 120 newspapers from the month of April. The research was based on the Issue Attention Cycle by ‘Anthony Downs’. In this analysis, in the perspective of news and advertisements published in the selected newspapers, Chi-Square test was applied for two hypothesis testing, the test showed insignificant results for H1 and significant results for H2.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Print Media, Clean and Green Pakistan Campaign, Image Building</p> Moneeba Iftikhar Urwah Iftikhar Mehwish Mukhta Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 24 34 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(24-34) Prospects and Challenges to Arms Control in South Asia https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/112 <p>In recent past, India attempts to modernize its arm forces. The technological advancement in conventional precision strike together with perception of increasing advantage of offensive weapons has led to precarious Indo-Pakistan stability. As a consequence, the latter has reciprocated by increasing existing number of nuclear weapons and delivery means. The above mentioned technological and political developments have increasingly become risky with incentives to launch a first strike. As a result, security dilemma is increasing which may led to war. For ensuring deterrence stability it is imperative that both sides place certain limits on the offensive nature of their weapons system.</p> <p>Key words: India and Pakistan, Security dilemma, Anti-ballistic missile defense, tactical nuclear weapons,offense and defense, arms control</p> Muhammad Naveed Qaisar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 11 23 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(11-23) A Comparative Study of English Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Iranian Bilinguals and Monolinguals https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/90 <p>The present study is an attempt to explore English vocabulary learning strategies employed by Iranian EFL undergraduate Baluch-Persian bilingual and Persian monolingual students in the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. The study utilized a between-groups research design. The participants of this study were 33 bilingual (Baluch-Persian) and 34 monolingual (Persian) students with an intermediate level of English. Their age ranged from 19 to 24 and. In order to collect the data, adapted version of Schmitt’s (1997) Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire (VLSQ) with a five-point Likert scale was administrated. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. The results indicated that EFL students use a wide range of vocabulary learning strategies. Furthermore, the findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals regarding English VLSs. Finally, the paper ends up with a number of pedagogical implications for English teachers.</p> Farzad Sabeki Rezvaneh Karimzadeh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 01 10 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(01-10) Does Pakistan’s Intellectual Property Law Conform to International Intellectual Property Law? An Overview https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/114 <p>Piracy and counterfeiting are not a problem of any one country or region but these evils have engulfed the whole world. That’s why in the presence of these evils we are unable to take advantage of the benefits of intellectual property. To eradicate these evils, each country has its own laws in accordance with international intellectual property law. Pakistan also has intellectual property laws. This research seeks to determine whether Pakistan’s intellectual property law is in line with international intellectual property law. For this purpose, an overview of legal and institutional framework for intellectual property in Pakistan and at international level has been taken. This study concludes that Pakistan’s intellectual property law conforms to international standards and the only requirement is that these laws be enforced effectively.</p> Ghulam Murtiza Dr. Qamar Abad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 245 255 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(245-255) A China and India: On the Edge of Water Disputes and Co-operation https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/113 <p>This study explores the scarcity of water within two populous states of the world, World has challenge of water war owing the water conflict between the two thirsty nations of the world that might transfer into global war. Qualitative as well as quantitative research methodology was used. Ramification of the study is founded under the current diplomatic and bilateral scenario of the two states, upper riparian states of the region including China and India wanted to divert river water flow to avoid water scarcity in future that might damage agriculture and industry of lower riparian states. It is also recommended that United Nation and other International Organizations should play their part and introduce agreed law and policy of water distribution for the protection of global water conflict.</p> Naila Afzal zahid yaseen Muhammad Muzaffar Muhammad Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 231 244 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(231-244) Evaluation of Students’ Opinions on Mathematics Teaching Process Designed According to Multiple Intelligence Theory https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/16 <p class="02-Abstract" style="text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10.0pt;">In this research, it is aimed to introduce the teaching process related to the mathematics course designed according to multiple intelligence theory and to evaluate the students’ opinions about the teaching process. Action research design was used in the research. Purposeful sampling method was used in the research group. The research group consisted of 18 students attending a high school. As a result of the evaluation of the observation forms applied, the students developed materials and activities related to their own intelligence areas related to trigonometry. The interview form was analyzed with descriptive analysis method. As a result of the research, it was determined that the students stated that the lessons were more fun and they learned the subject more easily with the activities designed according to multiple intelligence theory. It was concluded that the students learned by doing by themselves because they prepared the materials themselves, they participated in the classes more actively but the application process took too much time and the learning environment was noisier.</span></p> Tamer Kutluca Seval Laçin Samet GUNDUZ Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 11 1 256 268 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss2-2020(256-268) THE IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON PATIENT SATISFACTION: A FIELD STUDY IN THE HEALTH CENTERS OF THE SYRIANS IN GAZIANTEP https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/40 <p>Total Quality Management (TQM) is a major concern in business organizations and especially in the healthcare sector. The TQM philosophy focuses on the customer and focuses on how can the organization meets the customer's needs and wants, as well as the need to integrate activities within the organization. TQM focuses on continuous improvement of all aspects of the organization and on highlighting the excellence of all employees in the organization, with all management principles to manage jobs with few errors and low costs from start to finish.</p> <p>The aim of this research in the health sector is about patient satisfaction in the health sector represented by these TQM’s indicators (top management commitment, benchmarking, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, continuous improvement). This included the impact of total quality management factors on patients’ satisfaction,</p> AHMET Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts and Social Sciences (JASS) 2020-09-05 2020-09-05 11 1 Difficulties while Conducting Research in Academia: Taking M.Phil Students’ Perspectives in Public and Private Universities https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/75 <p>The thesis work has been the integral part of the MPhil in Education program. However, it has been observed that students are in a great fix regarding the completion of their thesis work. So, the purpose was to investigate the difficulties encountered by the students during research at MPhil level. Their experiences were further examined on the basis of their gender and university type. The data was collected by the survey. The conveniently selected sample consisted of 300 MPhil students including male and female, studying in public as well as in private universities. The data was collected through a questionnaire which was a 4-point Rating Scale comprising 25 items. It has 3 factors: i) supervisor’ selection, ii) supervisors’ support, iii) institutional support. The descriptive statistics for calculating the percentage of students’ perspectives as well as Inferential Statistics (Mann-Whitney U tests) was used to find out the difference on the basis of students’ gender and university type. The results revealed that majority of students selected their supervisors themselves willingly, but few of them forced to select their supervisor on their teachers’ referrals, research topics were allotted to students by supervisors themselves. Their supervisors were not easily approachable as they were unable to give students the due time because of their academic and administrative burdensome responsibilities, even neither the concerned HOD/ director is available at ease for students nor they are provided the access to paid e-libraries. By keeping in mind, the importance of thesis in accomplishment of degrees of MPhil students, there is need to conduct further studies to explore supervisors’ point of view as some of the problems are concerned with the supervisors’ support too, that will help to minimize the students’ problems.</p> Dr. Ghazal Khalid Siddiqui Muhammad Shahid Zulfiqar Dr. Mubushra Khalid Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 89 95 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(89-95) Human Resource Development and Management of Tertiary Education for global Competitiveness in Nigeria https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/74 <p>This study investigated the extent to which boosting of staff morale, staff empowerment and team building served as a strategy for ensuring effective management of tertiary education for global competitiveness in Nigeria. Quantitative research design was used for the study. Seven public tertiary education institutions in Kwara State were purposely selected for the study. The view of 330 lecturers and 21 school managers were sampled through stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The population of this study comprised of 3,600 academic staff in public tertiary education institutions in Kwara State. Sample of 330 lecturers and 21 school mangers were selected with the use of Research Advisor (2006) table to determine the sample size of a known population. A self-designed questionnaire titled “Human Resource Development for Global Competitiveness Questionnaire” (HRDGCQ) was used to collect information for the study. The data collected were analyzed using t-test statistical analysis. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that there was no significant difference between the boosting of staff morale, staff empowerment, teem building and management of tertiary education for global competitiveness. It was recommended that effort should be made by government to continue boosting staff moral by providing conducive environment, proper support of staff, as well as participation of staff in organizational decision making. Staff empowerment should also be part of government priorities in the management of tertiary education. Furthermore, government and school administrators should encourage team building among lecturers so as to enhance effective management of tertiary education for global competitiveness in Nigeria.</p> Abdullahi, Nimota Jibola Kadir Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 75 88 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(75-88) Portrayal of Violence against Women Rights in Pashtun and Punjab Community: A Comparative Analysis of Daily Express Peshawar and Lahore Edition https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/73 <p>The aim of this study was to find out the social construction of reality of media regarding women rights’ violation in Pashtuns and Punjabis communities in print media, for which Urdu daily Express was selected. The researchers collected data from the newspaper’s Peshawar and Lahore editions from January to March, 2015. For the data collection, the researchers used coding sheet which was devolved under the consideration of objective and research hypotheses. Data was collected through purposive sampling methodology. The results of the study explored that both the editions of the daily Express covered the issues of women rights’ violation. It also disclosed that Peshawar edition has given more coverage on the front, city and back pages to women rights violation than the Lahore edition. The results disclosed that the Lahore edition has not ethically covered news about women rights’ violation, while the Peshawar edition covered it more ethically. It is concluded that Peshawar-based journalists are following cultural values of Pashtun society, that is why the issue has been covered positively in the area.</p> Khayam Hassan Dr. Sajjad Ali Dr. Faiza Latif Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 67 74 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(67-74) Democracy in Afghanistan and External Actors https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/72 <p>The US responded to the 9/11 terrorist attacks by invading Afghanistan. The US invasion had two perceived objectives: Military and Political. The military objective was to eliminate Al-Qaida and Taliban in order to restore peace, while the political dimension was to rebuild the Afghan state and society from scratch, to establish a healthy democratic system which would put Afghanistan on the road to prosperity. In Dec 2001, nearly all the Afghan stakeholders, except Taliban, gathered along with the representatives of international community in Bonn, Germany. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the plans which would help to materialize the dream of a stable and democratic Afghanistan<strong>. </strong>The project of democratic Afghanistan envisioned at Bonn Conference in 2001 is still far from being achieved. All the attempts made by international community to establish democracy in Afghanistan have not been met with success. The study begins with the premise that there are certain pre-conditions which enhance the growth of democracy and unless the conditions are met, democratic stability will remain a distant dream in Afghanistan. This study surveys and analyzes the deterioration of democratic system in Afghanistan with special reference to the role of ethnic cleavages and the menacing influence of foreign actors. The study recommends policies that are aimed at reducing ethnic polarization by ensuring more equitable distribution of power and resources coupled with a realistic approach on the part of Kabul to take into account the legitimate security interests of regional countries in order to compel them to play a constructive role for achieving peace and stability in Afghanistan.</p> Dr. Mohammad Younus Dr. Aisha Shahzad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 53 66 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(53-66) Impact of Big five personality traits on Academic Achievement of Prospective Teachers https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/71 <p>There are some specific trends and regularities of behavioral patterns in individuals which determine their personality traits. This study was aimed to determine the impact of big five personality traits on academic achievement of prospective teachers<strong>. </strong>A quantitative study was conducted by using the casual comparative research design. A sample of 759 prospective teachers was selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique from two public universities. Big Five personality traits inventory (BFI) was adopted to collect data. Data was analyzed by applying inferential statistics. The findings showed the significant impact of personality traits like conscientiousness, openness to experience on prospective teachers’ academic achievement i.e. CGPA, while the impact of rest of the three variables i.e. extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism on academic achievement was not statistically significant. Findings also revealed that female prospective teachers were more emotionally stable than male prospective teachers. Accordingly, academic achievement of prospective teachers was predicted (20%) by big five personality traits, therefore it is recommended that teacher education Institutes arrange training sessions or workshops for providing guidance to educators and prospective teachers, to understand that every student possess different level of personality traits which have a great impact on their academic achievement.</p> Dr. Aroona Hashmi Qamar Naz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 40 52 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(40-52) Treasury Single Account System and Utilization of Internally Generated Revenue in University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/70 <p>This study investigated the impact of TSA on revenue generation and utilization in the University of Ilorin. Since the implementation of Treasury Single Account (TSA) in 2015 by the present administration in government with the intention to control financial mismanagement which will consequently improve government revenue and economic growth; stakeholders, researchers, and the general public are interested to know the extent to which these objectives have been met. This study empirically examined the extent to which TSA has an effect on total revenue (Grant+IGR) and its utilization. Both the interview and secondary data were utilized for this study. The interview session was for the staff of the Bursary Department of the University. Total fund allocated (Grant+IGR) and its utilization at the University of Ilorin for the period 2012 – 2017 was collected from the Unilorin Annual Reports. The data were divided into two periods: Pre TSA period (2012 to 2014) and Post TSA period (2015 to 2017). A pre-post analysis (difference in means test) was carried out using SPSS version 20. Findings show that the implementation of the Treasury Single Account has improved revenue generation in the University. However, further findings revealed that University’s revenue utilization improved after the implementation of TSA from N6, 691,451,094.41 billion to N8, 928,707,239.14 billion. It was recommended that university administrators, should, as a matter of importance, device other means of boosting their internally generated revenue. This should, however, be done within the ambit of the law.</p> OMOSIDI, Abdulrahman Suyuti ATOLAGBE, Adedapo. Adetiba OLADIPUPO, Musa. Yekini Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 28 39 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(28-39) Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction of Teachers Working at Special Education Institutions of Bahawalpur, Pakistan https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/69 <p>The present study compared the level of life satisfaction and emotional intelligence of teachers employed at special education institutes, and teachers working at regular education institutes. The purposive sampling was used to select the sample for this study. The sample of the study was comprised of 100 teachers, 50 (male=25, female=25) working at special education institutions and 50 (male=25, female=25) regular education institutions of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The age range of participants was 21-60 years. Satisfaction with Life Scale, Self-report measure of Emotional Intelligence and demographic information sheet were individually applied. Results showed that special education teachers have a higher level of life satisfaction and Emotional intelligence as compared to the teachers employed at regular education institutions. As for as demographic variables are concerned the results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the level of life satisfaction and emotional intelligence with regard to the gender and age of teachers working at special education of teachers.</p> Dr. Ambreen Anjum Dr. Aisha Shoukat Dr. Amina Muazzam Dr. Bisma Ejaz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 21 27 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(21-27) The Impact of Total Qualıty Management on Patıent Satısfactıon: A Fıeld Study in the Health Centers of the Syrıans in Gazıantep https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/68 <p>Total Quality Management (TQM) is a major concern in business organizations and especially in the healthcare sector. The TQM philosophy focuses on the customer and focuses on how can the organization meets the customer's needs and wants, as well as the need to integrate activities within the organization. TQM focuses on continuous improvement of all aspects of the organization and on highlighting the excellence of all employees in the organization, with all management principles to manage jobs with few errors and low costs from start to finish. The aim of this research in the health sector is about patient’s satisfaction in the health sector represented by these TQM’ indicators (top management commitment, benchmarking, customer satisfaction, employee’s satisfaction, continuous improvement). This included the impact of total quality management factors on patients’ satisfaction.</p> Prof. Dr. Abdulkadir BİLEN Ahmet SITKI Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 11 20 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(11-20) Effects of learning together on senior school students’ achievement in photosynthesis and students’ gender in Offa, Nigeria https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/67 <p>The poor performance of students in Biology is a concern of every teacher and has evoked research interests into learning strategies that can be used to improve the performance of students in Biology curriculum and other field of sciences. One of the fundamental qualities of a curriculum is dynamism, therefore there is need to investigate the activities that could promote Biology teaching in the secondary schools. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effects of learning together strategy on students’ academic achievement in photosynthesis and students’ gender. The study employs quasi-experimental design with control group for the collection of data. The population for the study composed of SSI students from Offa Local Government Area of Kwara State. The sample consisted of one hundred and seven-three students (173) that were purposely selected from four secondary schools. Data was collected through Biology Achievement Test on Photosynthesis. The researcher designed lesson plan and learning modules serves as guide for both the teachers and the students. The dependent samples t-test was used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study revealed that learning together form of cooperative learning strategy enhanced better performance of students in Biology than the students taught using conventional method of teaching. In addition, learners expressed an increased interest, motivation and self-efficacy after exposure to learning together strategy. The study concluded that learning together form of cooperative learning strategy enhanced better performance of students in Biology. One of the recommendations therefore, is that students should be taught using learning together teaching strategy.</p> Mulkah Adebisi Ahmed Khadijat Biola LAWAL Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 11 1 1 10 10.46662/jass-vol7-iss1-2020(1-10) Privation of Home Sciences a Skill Based Subject to opt by the Students of Undergraduate Level https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/64 <p>Home Sciences is an exclusive, professional as well as skill-based subject. In actuality, people are not considering its valuable because of its perception of being joined to home activities. The research determines student, teacher and mother related factors influencing the student to adopt Home Sciences as a subject at undergraduate level. This study is quantitative, in which the data is collected by making three different questionnaires. The first one is filled by the students of Home Sciences at undergraduate level, the second is filled by the teachers who teach undergraduate level and the third questionnaire is filled by the mothers who had studied this subject at any level in their educational career and they have decided to have their girls enrolled in this subject. The analysis is concluded on the percentages which determine the deficits and ideasstated by the three types of respondents. Data results indicate that lack of facilities, finance problems, un-trained teaching staff and a very extensive syllabus make students unwilling to choose this subject even though they know its career opportunities. Teachers do not consider it the most useful subject at undergraduate level but consider it helpful for girls at home. Mothers are agreeable to having more creative teachers for this subject to teach their girls so it can be more useful for them in order to deal with everyday problems.</p> Sadia Farooq Mubashra Khalid Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts and Social Sciences (JASS) 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 11 1 28 39 10.46662/jass-vol6-iss2-2019(28-39) Life Satisfaction and Organizational Cynicism: How Teachers are affected https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/63 <p>Life satisfaction seems to be playing a vital role in the background as we go about our lives today in this day and age, no matter what we may do for a living. We sometimes think all about what we have experienced so far throughout our life as a whole and draw some conclusions. Teachers are however, the focal points for almost every government, community or society to date. Teaching, however, is more complex and intriguing than it is thought to be by the outsiders. Negative attitudes, lack of belief and alienation from the workplace, regarded as ‘organizational cynicism’ overall, are most significantvariables in this context. This study examines the relationship between life satisfaction and organizational cynicism in schools. It is designed as a quantitative research and analyzes data gathered from a sample of 198 teachers working in the southeastern part of Turkey. ‘The Satisfaction with Life Scale’ and ‘Organizational Cynicism Scale’ was utilized to gather data. The study focuses on teachers’ overall level of life satisfaction and organizational cynicism. Additionally, since correlational relationships were investigated, the results of the respondents indicated a negative correlation. Behavioural cynicism appears to be the most effective subscale on life satisfaction level of teachers.</p> Ali Korkut Mahire Aslan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts and Social Sciences (JASS) 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 11 1 1 27 10.46662/jass-vol6-iss2-2019(1-27) Evaluation of English Language Teaching and Linguistics Program: A Case Study of Punjab University https://ojs.jass.pk/ojs/index.php/jass/article/view/88 <p>The aim of this case study was to evaluate the Master of Arts in English Language teaching and Linguistics (MA ELTL) Program being offered by Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of the Punjab since 2003. English is taught as a compulsory subject up to graduation level and holds a central position in education system of Pakistan. The results of students in secondary, higher secondary and graduation level exams showed poor condition in English subject reflecting poor quality of learning English which is dependent on&nbsp; quality of teachers. The quality of English teachers depends on the quality and effectiveness of teacher education program. However, the quality of teacher education program becomes a prime determinant for quality of learning. Among various aspects of program quality, level of preparedness of its prospective teachers is most widely used feature. Therefore, this evaluative case study was planned to investigate preparedness level of prospective teachers in 20 domains identified through literature as essential components of a quality teacher education program. The prospective teachers of final semester (PTFS) and alumni of the MA ELTL program rated their level of preparedness to teach in real world classrooms after receiving training through this program. The instruments; a self-reported survey questionnaire from PTFS and alumni’s (N=196) as well as an observation schedule of 20 PTFS to observe their classroom practices were used. Findings showed that PTFS and alumni were moderately prepared in instruction, curriculum, professionalism, and English language teaching skills. The study recommended that duration and quality of practice teaching should be improved. Prospective teachers must be trained to apply theoretical knowledge into practical teaching under the guidance of instructors.</p> Muhammad Irfan Mumtaz Akhtar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 11 1 162 172